Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Leadership is the influence – nothing more, nothing less. (John C. Maxwell). Leadership can be defined as the will to control events, the understanding to chart a course, and the power to get a job done, cooperatively using the skills and abilities of other people. (Donald G. Krause). The leader is the person who can give influence to other individuals in a company. Something interesting in leadership is the existence of leaders who are in the organization which has its own structure by creating a relationship between leaders and followers to achieve excellence. Track in an organization requires steps or activities that in the plan by leaders for pushing his followers increased determination and determination towards the organization. Therefore, efforts towards the consolidation of the activities of an organization subject to someone's intelligence leaders. Effective leader is someone who knows how to inspire and relate to subordinates; able to convince subordinates that the organizational vision is not only important but attainable; able to challenge them with goals, projects, tasks and responsibility that allow them to feel a sense of personal success, achievement, and accomplishment; rewards subordinates who perform well with recognition, money and promotions (Edwin A. Locke (1999). Meanwhile, leadership in Islam is a trust. Often, it takes the form of an explicit contract or pledge between a leader and his followers that he will try his best to guide them, to protect them and to treat them fairly and with justice. Hence, the focus of leadership in Islam is on integrity and justice. An effective Islamic leaders has positive personality traits and the traits are God-fearing, high morality, compassion for the people, patience, humble, fair, just, diligent, courageous, pious, honest, positive outlook, considerate and noble.
There are four leadership theories that are Great Man Theory, Trait Approach Theory, Transactional Theory and Transformational Theory. Great man theory is based on the belief that leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead. While, trait approach theory is it was believe that through this approach critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions. The transactional theory is base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. There is the element of transaction in place – perform and you will receive. If you do not perform you will have to face. It is often used in the armed forces and also in business. When employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. Transformational theory is transformational leaders strive to others to fulfill their potential. These usually use coaching and mentoring approach to help their subordinates....