Leadership Models AssignmentSubmit a 2100 - 2800-word essay in which you compare and contrast the Pre-Classical, Classical, Modernism, and Post-Modernism era leadership models. Evaluate the supporting research that contributed to each model's development, and assess the models in terms of effectiveness for its originating timeframe. Assess how the models relate to one another: are there points of convergence or divergence? Provide references to appropriate literature to support your judgments, assertions, and conclusions.
IntroductionLeadership is such an extraordinary power that can make the difference in building a winning organization or the fall of an entire empire. The number of definitions that exist on leadership implies that leadership is still an evolving science with various leadership models to be studied over thousands of years. Popular reading such as Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership encourages the reader that the principle concern of leadership theory and research is managerial performance effectiveness. From the Pre-Classical Era of ancient Egyptians to the Modern Era of General Patton, leadership models have similarities and differences that strike a cord to get people to follow. Leadership studies traditionally agreed with elites tactics: military, political, financial, aristocratic, or cultural elites. In all eras, Leadership is considered an executive occupation and privilege.
Pre-Classical EraThe Pre-Classical Era of leadership was created before the birth of Christ. Before the industrial revolution organized management consisted of the household, military, church and government. Products were made or grown by the family for usage by the family. As civilization advanced and cultures changed the industrial revolution would begin. English (1994) expounds on early leadership as a heroic effort of philosophers and conquers, "Homer's stories had a significant impact on the philosophers and rulers who shaped the European world from Plato to the modern day. Alexander the Great kept a copy of Homer's Iliad, edited by Aristotle, under his pillow" (p.24).
The Greeks addressed leadership as a matter of birthright. Countrymen had to be born into leadership to become the ruler. Bass (1981) explains "A preoccupation with leadership as opposed to headship based on inheritance, usurpation, or appointment occurs predominantly in countries with an Anglo-Saxon heritage" (p. 6). This form of Pre-Classical leadership is still prevalent in Europe today with monarchies, although they exist today mainly as symbolism. The King was ordained by the church and authority was lead by the patriarch or matriarch of the familyThe Egyptian are noted as having an office of the "vizier" or what has become known as the supervisor. The vizier's office was responsible for measuring the changes in the Nile River, of which the economic infrastructure of Egypt depended on. The early Egyptians had established project management and...