Leadership Models And Communication Essay

1117 words - 4 pages

According to Johns and Saks (2001), "Leadership is the influence that particular individual exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context. In theory, any member of an organization can exert influence on another, but some members are in a better position than others" (p. 272). Furthermore, formal leadership is no guarantee that there is leadership, because some managers and supervisors fail to exert influence on others, but these leaders can therefore be termed as ineffective leaders. Therefore, leadership is not limited to a role, rather leadership skills comes from within.Transformational leaders set challenging expectations and enable others to achieve higher levels of performance. Bass (1985) depicted transformational leadership as comprising of four distinct factors: charisma, inspiration, individual consideration and intellectual stimulation (p. 178).A basic premise of this "full range" leadership model (Avolio & Bass, 1989, p. 163) is that transformational leadership is not viewed as opposite ends of a continuum. The same leader can display each of the full range of behaviors or styles (i.e. transactional, transformational and even laissez-faire). Thus, transformational leadership does not replace transactional leadership but adds to it by encouraging followers and colleagues to put in the extra effort. A recent analysis illustrates that all components of transformational leadership behaviors are strongly correlated to both objective and subjective measures of performance (Avolio & Bass, 1989, p. 163).Authentic versus Pseudo transformational LeadershipMany leaders walk a fine line of moral goodness. In their efforts to accent the positive, to make inspiring appeals, to maintain the enthusiasm and morale of followers, they may be manipulative. They will withhold the release of information. Or they will time its release for when it will do the most good. They will give the appearance of confidence even when they are unsure about what they are doing and what they are telling followers to do. They will initiate projects which they personally oppose and delay implementing them so that the projects never are completed. They will publicly support but privately oppose proposals. They will openly compromise but privately divert the implementation of the compromise (Martin & Sims, 1956; Bass, 1968, p. 27). They may have the public image of a saint but privately are deceptive devils. They may appear to their followers to behave as a transformational leader but the appearance is deceptive for inwardly they remain more interested in themselves than their followers. They knowingly focus their followers on fantasies instead of attainable visions. They are pseudo transformational (Martin & Sims, 1956; Bass, 1968, p. 27).Martin and Sims (1956) and Bailey (1988) stated that to succeed, all leaders must be manipulative (p.28). But, in fact, it is Pseudo transformational leaders who are deceptive and manipulative....

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