Lussier and Achua (2004) define the leadership styles as a combination of traits, skills, and behaviours leaders use as they interact with employees. In order for one to understand and decide on a certain leadership styles, one must know the characteristics of the favourable leadership style. Over the years researchers have been debating on the topic of leadership, as conducting different studies the styles have different output.
Nevertheless, the research done on this topic is indicating that specific characteristics or traits are inherent in leaders and as cited in Murphy (2005) is can’t be develop thought educations or personal skills. The Great Main Trait Theory indicated that leaders ...view middle of the document...
Situational Leadership theories conducted by Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) considered the University of Iowa study (1939) as being too narrow by using only two leadership styles; the objective of their criticism had the intention to prove that there are at least four leadership styles that can be identified as: the autocratic, the persuasive, the consultative and the democratic (Sadler, 2003, p.65-66).
Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) and Sandler (1966) suggested that the leadership behaviour varies from situation to another and as leaders moving away from the autocratic styles employees’ participation in decision taking increases. And also suggested that the democratic styles it will be rarely used in formal organizations.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) interpretation of leadership styles suggested that leaders will use only a specific style even if there will be another more appropriate style to solve the matter affecting the group.
The importance of choosing the right leadership style for the organization is the key factor in the life and success of the organization, as the employees are playing an important role in the organizations success and productivity.
Comparing with trait theories, the behavioural theories are focusing on the actions that are making a person to become an effective leader (Wright, 1996). The two leadership styles that are the main focus in this review are the job-centered (task orientated) and employee-centered (people orientated), they have been are analysed in two important studies conducted in the University of Michigan (1940) and Ohio State University (1945). The job-centered leader behaviour is more concern with taking the control over the operations in order to complete the tasks and the employee-centered behaviour is concentrating on the leader meeting the needs and developing relationships with the employees (Lussier & Achua, 2004).
The Michigan study has founded information that indicates that leaders that used the employee-centered style and accepted employees’ in participating in the decision process created more effective and productive groups. The job-centered leaders on the contrary had a different result as they are more concern about completing the tasks and as a result the groups were less productive. The Ohio State University findings reached the conclusion that both behavioural styles were two distinctive components and didn’t have any similar characteristics, but a...