Numerous Job vacancies begin by seeking the services of a Manager and then follow it up with the statement that the manager must have leadership skills. By implication, one can assume that leadership is second in command to management; and yet in the present turbulent environment, leadership is much more needed as it is the only thing that can make firms achieve competitive advantage. The most logical thing for organizations is to develop a job placement with a title-leader- thereby clearly stating that a firm is seeking a leader than that of a manager. This paper presents a review and critical evaluation of a key leadership and management issue facing organisations today. First of all, the paper will focus on a review of a key management issue, secondly, it will review a key leadership issue; and, finally, it will present a critical evaluation of both management and leadership.
Emphasis on Structure, Order and Consistency-A key issue of Management
The history of management is about the creation of structure; order and consistency as per the classical management approach. It should be noted that the classical view approach to managing an organisation ended up developing managers than leaders. Burnes (2000 pp.33) support this claim through his statement that classical approach is characterised by the proposition that organisations are rational entities, they are designed based on scientific principles, and that people are economic being and are only motivated by money. As a result, jobs are designed to maximise management control and minimise individual’s skill and discretion. Large Corporation, for example, a financial institution is a good case in point. Operations of a commercial bank is often hierarchically structured, calls for order and consistency. Procedures, moreover, regulate employee behaviour in order to achieve order. Therefore, managers spend all their time ensuring that routine but rigid operations are implemented. The aim is to maintain the status quo.
Management issues have its roots in classical approaches to management. This implies that shortfalls such as risk averse, rigidity, and short term focus can be directly linked to the classical roots. Of course, classical theorist may not entirely be blamed for creating a management based system which emphasises on order, predictability and consistency. Although its relevance today may be question, the theorist developed models to suit their operating environment. That is, the early 1900. For instance Henry Fayol’s 14 principles of management were developed to provide sanity in the troubled France coupled with industrial unrest among the railway worker, miners and civil servants. This was complimented by Fredrick Taylor’s in the United States America with his principles of scientific management, and Max Weber’s bureaucratic ideologies. At the end, classical led to the proposition that efficiency was achieved from the organisation level (Henry Fayol) and...