Heart diseases are a leading cause of death throughout the world. Myocardial infarction with serious damage to the left ventricular function as well as valvular heart disease continue to affect many people causing morbidity and mortality (Weber et al. 2013). Valvuar heart disease includes a condition called valvular stenosis, where the tissues in the valves become stiffer and fails to open properly, resulting in the valve opening to become narrow. This causes the blood flow to lessen due to not being able to flow thoroughly, which may cause the body to not receive proper blood flow. Myocardial infarction is the death of the cells in an area of the myocardium. This causes oxygen deficiency that is caused by a block in the blood supply also known as a heart attack. The left ventricle is the common site for MI, which is the chamber of the heart that works the most. This results in fibrotic scar formation and ...view middle of the document...
The cardiac tissue construct should mimic a native heart muscle, show functional and morphological properties of the heart muscle, and remain viable after implantation. This would result in improved systolic and diastolic function of the diseased myocardium. Tissue engineering also makes use of temporary scaffolds, cells and growth promoting signals for tissue regeneration, repair and development (Radhakrishnan et al. 2014). Good contractility should be exhibited in the cardiac construct as well as being mechanically robust and flexible. It should also be extensively vascularized following implantation.
Scaffolding in Tissue regeneration:
The effects of scaffold on cell attachment, function and structure have been examined by different formulations. Tissue-like constructs were formed by the electrospun scaffolds that contained primary cardiomyocytes. For better cell tissue growth, tissue engineering has been inspired by a biomimicry design of materials in order to recreate a natural three-dimensional environment.
Zebrafish have been studied to have a natural ability for heart regeneration that can then inform us how the process of regeneration occurs. Components needed are proliferation of existing cardiomyocytes as the primary cellular source and an environment that stimulates muscle generation from the source (Gemerling et al. 2013). Zebrafish are a highly useful system due to the combination of available genetic tools and robust regenerative capacity (Major et al. 2007). Cardiac progenitor cells are studied to be successful in heart regeneration with the zebrafish.
Additional studies in the future will help increase the resolution of regenerative pathways of tissue regeneration in humans. With the study of the zebrafish, potential factors can be manipulated and the full utilization of emerging technologies will strengthen the foundation of regeneration studies. The next generation of insights and discoveries can be facilitated by the advances in gene targeting, chemical screening and visualization techniques in the zebrafish. (Gemerling et al. 2013).