Study Of Giant Panda Digestion And Survival

2076 words - 8 pages

The giant panda is part of the Ursidae family and in the order of Carnivora. Animals that are in the order of Carnivora usually eat meat but the giant panda specializes in the herbivorous diet of bamboo. The giant panda has retained the typical monogastric carnivore digestive system which is typically short and has no special compartments to retain food or any symbiotic bacteria needed to break down cellulose from the bamboo into any usable nutrients. Since the giant panda is unable to digest cellulose and lacks the necessary symbiotic bacteria for the digestion of bamboo, they have to rely on mainly the cell content through a process where the bamboo is first eaten and then passed unaltered in the digestive tract in a very short time. The giant panda must eat a large amount of bamboo daily in order to meet their energy requirements.
In an article titled “Energy Digestibility of Giant Pandas on Bamboo-Only and on Supplemented Diets”, the goal of this study was to figure out the energy digestibility of bamboo by giant pandas using digestibility trials and through analysis using bomb calorimetry. An energy budget is a numerical statement that measures the amount of energy collected and the placement of the energy to various functions. Energy budgets can be described using the equation: E=M+P+U+F (where E is the total amount of energy consumed, M is the energy used for maintenance and activity, P is the energy used for production (which includes growth and reproduction), U is the energy lost in urine, and F is the energy lost in feces.). The total energy consumed minus the energy lost in feces is the digestible energy and shows the ability of the digestive system to process consumed food.
The majority of the bamboo plant consists of culm (which is the stem) and branches. Bamboo is composed primarily of structural carbohydrates, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. These are highly indigestible structures and pose an assimilation problem for pandas because they have limited ability to digest these structural carbohydrates. All of these traits combined makes bamboo a low quality food source.
For the methods the researchers conducted seven energy digestibility trials. Five of these trials were conducted at a Memphis zoo using different species of bamboo and different supplements including different brands of dried dog food, apples and sugar canes. The other two trials were conducted in an Atlanta zoo using only bamboo and the minimal amount of supplements used for treats.
The caloric content of the feed, orts (food refusal), supplements, and feces that were collected during digestibility trials was determined using a Parr Oxygen Bomb on a dry matter basis. The samples were then analyzed in duplicates with the variance in samples within 1%. The percent apparent energy digestibility was calculated with units of measurement in kilocalories (kcal) using the following equation:
Apparent digestibility % = kcal digested (kcal consumed - kcal...

Find Another Essay On Study of Giant Panda Digestion and Survival

Survival and Fall of the Tsar

2222 words - 9 pages Survival and Fall of the Tsar In the 1905 revolution, the Russian Population was not seeking to overthrow the Tsarist autocracy, but was rather demanding social and economic reforms, a representative government and elections. However in the February 1917 revolution, the workers and the soldiers massed together with only one idea in their heads; overthrow Tsar Nicholas II and put an end to Russia’s autocratic system. The

Nietzsche´s Life and Survival: Buddha´s Meaning of Suffering

4677 words - 19 pages Introduction “To live is to suffer; to survive is to find some meaning in the suffering.” Friedrich Nietzsche’s articulate definition of life and survival serves in tandem to Buddha’s teachings of suffering, the meaning of suffering, and it’s applicability to real life. In essence, one must commit to realizing suffering, the causes of suffering, and finally, the means of escaping it. Suffering can be physical or psychological, yet it must yield

Atmospheric Oxygen, Giant Paleozoic Insects and the Evolution of Aerial Locomotor Performance

2190 words - 9 pages animal flight can be observed. Withers’ (1981) study on honeybees showed that in normoxic and hyperdense conditions, honeybees can reduce their energy output and still remain in flight, an observation that is consistent with the idea that flight becomes easier in hyperdense conditions. While subjecting fully developed adult animals to a suite of atmospheric conditions is informative, a great deal could also be learned by observing the effects of

Significance of Organizational Change in Robbins' Awaken the Giant Within and Gladwell's What the Dog Saw

914 words - 4 pages I’ve been reading two books during the past couple of weeks, “Awaken the Giant Within” by Tony Robbins and “What the Dog Saw” by Malcolm Gladwell. Whenever I read a book, I read it with an eye towards lessons or insight I can use in organizational change. Robbins’ book is full of insight; Gladwell’s has its moments. These disparities of insight stem from the difference in construction and intent of the two books. Robbins wrote his book as a

Survival in Yann Martel's Life of Pi and The Story of Keesh

1088 words - 4 pages In the short story, “The Story of Keesh”, and the novel excerpt, “Life of Pi”, the authors develop characters who have the will to survive in extreme environments. “The Story of Keesh” is mainly about a teen boy, named Keesh, who has to find the strength to live in an extreme arctic environment, long ago, on the rim of the polar sea. Similarly, the “Life of Pi” is mainly about a young man named Pi who makes an effort to survive in extraordinary

The Journeys of Survival in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist and Yann Martel’s Life of Pi

1852 words - 7 pages when one sets out on a mission, they face different challenges on the journey but in the end, they can accomplish more than their aim. The novel The Alchemist, by Paulo Coelho, and the novel Life of Pi, by Yann Martel, both describe two journeys where the characters learn about life, survival, and patience. First, they understand themselves better, followed by learning to communicate with nature. Then they learn to face their fears, and lastly

The Bielski Brothers in Belarus: A Story of Survival, Racism and World War II

556 words - 2 pages “The Bielski Brothers” is a story of three amazing brothers, their journey of survival and experience they faced in World War II. Peter Duffy places this extraordinary story of survival in context by describing the Bielskis lives and experiences , quoting from Tuvia Bielskis previously unknown journal, and revealing the sociopolitical history, including the anti-Semitism of Belarus, a region the Bielski Brother’s had grown up in. WWII was

Lifestyle, Social Grouping, Interactions, and Survival in _Out of the Silent Planet_

1473 words - 6 pages social system on planet earth. In this regard, this paper provides an analysis of the two planets, and it compares and contrasts them by focusing on lifestyle, social grouping, interact ions, as well as survival and life. Out of the silent planet is an illustration of how human beings on planet Earth are evil (Lowman 15). To show the social contrast, the author creates a utopian planet called Malacandra where inhabitants live together in peace

What Factors best explain the popularity and survival of Luther's ideas? (AS grade A essay)

1581 words - 6 pages biblical texts in hiding.During Luther's time within the castle the role of other reformers became increasingly important in the survival of Lutheran ideas. Philip Melanchton was a crucial missionary. He helped to refine Luther's theology and continue the reformation in Wittenberg. Other missionaries aided the diffusion of the reformation across the empire such as Brucer in Strasburg. By the mid 1520s it became clear that the only way to remove the

Prompt: Is Israel’s very survival dependent on the creation of a stable and viable Palestinian state?

851 words - 4 pages Prompt: Is Israel’s very survival dependent on the creation of a stable and viable Palestinian state? Let us have ambitions; ambitions to move beyond the violence and occupation, to the day when two states, Palestine and Israel, can live together side by side in peace and security. ~King Abdullah II. In the country of Israel there are two conflicting ethnic/religious groups, the Israelis and the Palestinians. Israelis have most of the power

Explain the importance of business planning to the survival and growth

1657 words - 7 pages Explain the importance of business planning to the survival and growth of organisations. A business plan should always for a business start up, the use of the business plan should not stop there, and businesses should be planning constantly in order to run their business effectively and efficiently. Businesses have to think about how they are going to plan for survival or growth, therefore they need to do business planning, to help the

Similar Essays

Process Of Digestion And Absorption After Eating A Hamburger.

719 words - 3 pages Process of Digestion and Absorption after eating a hamburger.After someone eats a hamburger with the works, they do not really think of what nutrients are in that hamburger, what the body does to get those nutrients out of the food, or even what process is used, they just think of how good it tasted. To get all the nutrients out of the food the human body uses processes called absorption and digestion. Some of the processes of digestion are

Ernest Hemingway's Uses Of Weakness And Survival

1189 words - 5 pages Ernest Hemingway's Uses of Weakness and Survival Ernest Hemingway is one of the most recognized writers of the twentith century. In World War I, Hemingway drove ambulances for the Red Cross, and was seriously wounded. Hemingway was rejected by his mother, and felt forced to move away from home. These experiences had a profound emotional impact on him and his writings. As a result

The Life And Survival Of Wladyslaw Szpilman

1378 words - 6 pages , was selected to be deported (4). One their way to the trains, Wladyslaw felt a hand, was flung back, and saved by a Jewish officer. At first, Wladyslaw didn’t want to be separated from his family, but he realized what it was all about. All they faced was death. He had a chance of survival (5). After the loss of his family, Wladyslaw stayed with several friends while completing a variety of jobs, some of which almost were the end of him. He did

Terrorism And The Survival Of The Species

1265 words - 5 pages Terrorism and the Survival of the Species   Terrorism is simply a violent form of political communication. The message of September 11, 2001 ran as follows: America, it is time you learned how implacably you are hated. The airplanes used were the terrorist's version of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles aimed at Americas' innocence. That innocence, the terrorists loudly declared, was a luxurious and anachronistic delusion. &nbsp