Learning And Memory. Essay

1204 words - 5 pages

Learning may be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation.We learn in three different ways: Classical conditioning, operant or instrumental conditioning, and observational learning.Classical or Pavlovian conditioning:stimulus -- Any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds; plural is stimuli.unconditioned stimulus (US): A stimulus that elicits a specific response without prior learning.unconditioned response (UR): A response that is invariably elicited by theunconditioned stimulus without prior learning.conditioned stimulus (CS): A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response.conditioned response: A learned response rather than a naturally occurring one.conditioned response (CR): A response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.extinction: The disappearance of a learned response; the conditioned response is weakened by repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.spontaneous recovery: The reappearance of an extinguished response (in a weaker form) when an organism is exposed to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period.generalization: The tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.discrimination: The learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli.Instrumental or Operant Conditioningreinforcer: Anything that strengthens a response or increases the probability that it will occur.shaping: Gradually moulding a desired behavior by reinforcing responses that become progressively closer to it; reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response.successive approximations: A series of gradual training steps, with each step becoming more like the final desired response.extinction: The disappearance of a learned response (in operant conditioning, the conditioned response is weakened by the withholding of reinforcement).positive reinforcement: A reward or pleasant consequence that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated.negative reinforcement: The termination of an unpleasant stimulus after a response in order to increase the probability that the response will be repeated.primary reinforcer: A reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning (examples: food, water, sleep, termination of pain).secondary reinforcer: A neutral stimulus that becomes reinforcing after repeated pairing with other reinforcers.schedule of reinforcement: A systematic program for administering reinforcements that has a predictable...

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