Learning And Teaching Processes Essay

3447 words - 14 pages

PAGE PAGE 6
LECTURE 3. LEARNING AND TEACHING PROCESSES3.1 The teaching process3.2 Presentations and explanations3.3. Practice activities3.1 The teaching processThe process of teaching a foreign language is a complex one: as with many other subjects, it is broken down into components. There are three components: (1) presenting and explaining new material; (2) providing practice; and (3) testing.In principle, the teaching processes of presenting, practising and testing correspond to strategies used by many good learners trying to acquire a foreign language on their own. They make sure they perceive(воспринимать) and understand new-language (by paying attention, by constructing meanings, by formulating rules or hypotheses that account for it, and so on); they make conscious efforts to learn it thoroughly (by mental rehearsal of items, for example, or by finding opportunities to practise); and they check themselves (get feedback on performance, ask to be corrected).In the classroom, it is the teacher's job to promote these three learning processes by the use of appropriate teaching acts. Thus, a teacher presents and explains new material in order to make it clear, comprehensible and available for learning; gives practice to consolidate knowledge; and tests, in order to check what has been mastered and what still needs to be learned or reviewed. These acts may not occur in this order, and may sometimes be combined within one activity; nevertheless good teachers are usually aware which is their main objective at any point in a lesson.This is not, of course, the only way people learn a language in the classroom. They may absorb new material unconsciously, or semi-consciously, through exposure to comprehensible and personally meaningful speech or writing, or through their own engagement with it, without any purposeful teacher mediation as proposed here. Through such mediation, however, the teacher is to provide a framework for organized, conscious learning, while simultaneously being aware of - and providing opportunities for - further, more intuitive acquisition.3.2 Presentations and explanationsIt would seem fairly obvious that in order for our students to learn something new (a text, a new word, how to perform a task) they need to be first able to perceive and understand it. One of the teacher's jobs is to mediate(служить связующим звеном) such new material so that it appears in a form that is most accessible for initial learning.This kind of mediation may be called 'presentation'. The term presentation is applied not only to the introduction of new words or grammatical structures, but also to the initial encounter with comprehensible (понятный,...

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