1. The origins of intelligence testing begins with Alfred Binet assessing intellectual abilities. He was doing this because a new law in France made it so the French had to attend school. Binet thus made the idea of a mental age, the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. This was used to separate the “dull” children with a lower mental age and the “bright” children who had a higher one. Eventually, Lewis Terman revised Binet's test and produced the Stanford-Binet variant, which is widely used. William Stern derived the intelligence quotient, which is mental age divided by chronological age times 100.
2. Psychologists do not agree on a single ...view middle of the document...
Studies of creative people show that there are five components to creativity. The first is expertise, which is a well-developed base knowledge. Next is imaginative thinking skills, which provides the ability to see things in a new way, recognize patterns, and make connections. A venturesome personality tolerates ambiguity and risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles, and seeks new experiences. Intrinsic motivation is having the motivation to do something creative. Lastly, a creative environment is needed to spark, support, and refine creative ideas. Interestingly, creative mathematicians score no higher on intelligence tests than lesser creative people. This indicates the complex association of testing one's creativity with their intelligence on a test.
4. In the struggle to relate intelligence with brain anatomy, psychologists have found that very intelligent people die with 17% more synapses than regular people. There is also evidence that suggests that intelligent people have different neural plasticity. During their childhood they may have grown more neural connections from their environment. Tests for intelligence and brain function can be seen in processing speed. Scientists try to define how quick someone responds to a stimulus, and they measure the time taken. This may not reflect one's actual intelligence, but instead show their core information processing speed.
5. An aptitude test is designed to predict a person's future performance, while an achievement test is designed to test what a person has previously learned. The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test, and it contains verbal and performance subtests.
6. Standardization is defining meaningful scores by comparison with scores from a pretested “standardization group.” For an intelligence test to be accepted, it much feature reliability, validity, and proper standardization. The standardization is important because if you take a test from 1996 and the standardization is from 1930 rather than 1996, the results will not be indicative of you performance in relation to the rest of the world. Thus, standardization must always be up-to-date.
7. Reliability is the extent to which a test has consistent results while validity is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. To check a test's reliability, the test-taker must take the original test and some variation of it and see if the results correlate. If they do, it is a reliable test. The test should also have good content validity, which is the extent to which a tests samples the behavior that is of interest. Predictive...