Why is it that many Greek artifacts were found in the soils of Lebanon ? Why were there Lebanese citizens who were buried in tombs that had Greek carvings ? Was Lebanon a Greek occupation or was it a Hellenic vacation spot ?! When Darius perceived the fierce attack of Alexander, he turned his chariot around and was the first to flee, abandoning all of his soldiers and his property to be taken by Alexander. After Darius' loss to Alexander at Gaugamela, the Persian Empire, which included Lebanon, Iran, Armenia, Syria, Israel, Turkey ... , was no more. The gates of Phoenicia were open to the victorious Greeks. Tired from the Persian oppression, the Phoenician Cities welcomed the Hellenic king where only Tyre resisted but was eventually stormed after a long siege. Phoenicia after Alexander's untimely death came under the rule of Seleucids where monarchy was eradicated and the cities were ruled by high officials bearing Greek names ,so were the Lebanese forced to adopt a Greek lifestyle or was the Cedars Nation willingly accepting this new culture ?
Alexander pursued deliberate Hellenization policies. Whilst it may have been an intentional attempt to spread Greek culture, it is more likely that it was a series of realistic events designed to aid in the rule of his colossal empire. Alexander founded cities across the empire which were intended to be administrative headquarters in the regions and settled by Greeks many of which were veterans from Alexander's campaigns. This policy allowed Alexander to gain control over his new subjects and at the same time spread Greek influence over the empire. Also he attempted to unify the ruling classes by marriage ties where people with positions of power from all classes were used.
After Alexander's death in 323BC, the Empire was divided into satrapies under his generals. Most of Alexander's cultural changes were cast off by the Diadochi, including the cross-cultural marriages they entered into. However, the flood of Greek settlers into the new land continued to spread Greek culture into Asia. The establishment of new cities continued to be a major part of the Successors' struggle for control of any particular region , and these continued to be centers of cultural flow. The spread of Greek culture under the Successors appears mostly to have taken place with the spreading of Greeks themselves , rather than as an active policy.
The Seleucid Empire was a main center of Hellenistic culture which preserved the dominance of Greek traditions and where a Greek- Macedonian political elite conquered , mostly in the urban areas. The Greek populace of the cities who shaped the dominant elite were armored by emigration from Greece. However, the Phoenicians did enjoy some autonomy and were given the right to mint coins, build ships and trade cedar timber; An example would be the city of Tripoli which was granted sovereignty between 105 and 104 which it maintained until 64 B.C.
Hellenic influence became stronger;...