Legume High Co2 Responses Essay

866 words - 4 pages

Natural and anthropogenic substances like green house gases that alter earth’s energy budget are drivers of climate change. Radiative forcing (RF) quantifies the change in energy fluxes caused by changes in these drivers and positive RF leads to surface warming. The largest contribution to total RF is caused by the increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 (1.68 W m-2) followed by CH4, Halo-carbons and N2O since 1750 (IPCC 2013). According to IPCC 2013 the CO2 concentrations will raise unprecedentedly from 391 Parts per million (p.p.m) in 2011 to 550–700 p.p.m. by 2050 and to 670–936 by 2100. Ironically, most of the CO2 is mitigated by plants with photosynthetic reaction that ...view middle of the document...

Due to the imbalanced C-N stoichiometry, the plant acclimates, adjusting its photosynthetic, respiratory, and N metabolism to improve performance under elevated CO2 (Leakey et al., 2009). Acclimation (i.e., down-regulation) of carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) is eventuated by reduced ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) amount and activity and by a general decrease in leaf N (especially on a mass basis) owing to enhanced C uptake under elevated CO2. Additionally, decreased expression of specific photosynthetic genes as a result of increased sucrose cycling in mesophyll cells that occurs when net C uptake exceeds the capacity for carbohydrate export and utilization also due for this phenomenon of down regulation (Ainsworth & Long 2005). Thus, if elevated CO2 decreases soil N availability and/or increases C pools in biomass, this should lead to lower leaf N (mass or area basis), leading to down regulation of net photosynthetic capacity (Ellsworth et al. 2004, Nowak et al. 2004). The acclimation of photosynthesis is best understood with the context of A-ci curve. (Ainsworth and Rogers, 2007).

However, there is a marked difference between leguminous species, in the family Fabaceae, and non-leguminous species towards the response to elevated CO2. Some leguminous species have the ability to form N2 – fixing nodules on their roots to acquire atmospheric N2, in symbiosis with rhizobial bacteria (de Faria et al., 1989; Moreira et al., 1992; Sprent, 2009). Due to this feature, nodule forming legumes may be able to respond more strongly to elevated CO2 than species that lack this capacity, particularly in nitrogen-poor soils. This can be exemplified by two In a non-leguminous perennial ryegrass...

Find Another Essay On legume high co2 responses

Determinants of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Philippines

2172 words - 9 pages country responses thus implying that policies cannot be uniformly implemented across those countries. Trade Some researchers consider that the economies today are growing, globalised and interconnected due to international trade. A study by Al-mulali and Sheau-Ting (2014), bi-directional relationships between trade variables (exports, imports, and trade openness— sum of trade over GDP) and energy consumption and CO2 emissions of 189 countries that

Climate Change: Global Emissions of Green House Gases

837 words - 3 pages ). In fact, energy related emissions are forecasted to grow by over 2% per year over the next 30 years, if the world community continue with ‘business as usual’ (Stern, 2006). However, emissions during the 21st century must be reduced to a fraction of their present levels before the century’s end in order to stabilize CO2 concentrations (Houghton, 2005; Stern, 2006). Effective responses require collective action (Stern, 2006) and global efforts are needed to develop global solutions to overcome these global problems (Houghton, 2005, Stern, 2006).

Ocean Acidification: Negative Impacts on Shellfish

2360 words - 10 pages .(2013). Coastal Observations on the East Coast: Ocean Acidification Monitoring Network. Retrieved April 29, 2014, from NOAA Ocean Acidifcation Program. Whitman Miller, A., Reynolds, Amanda C., Sobrino, Cristina , & Riedel, Gerhardt F. 2009. Shellfish Face Uncertain Future in High CO2 World: Influence of Acidification on Oyster Larvae Calcification and Growth in Estuaries. PLOS.

Effect of Inhaling Various Concentrations of CO2 on Electrical Activity of the Heart

1958 words - 8 pages triggered by hypoxemia, in pulmonary diseases and changes due to high altitude, as well as anoxia. Increases in partial pressure of CO2, also elicit faster responses from these chemoreceptors, though to a lesser degree. The glomus cells of carotid bodies detect this by way of carbonic anhydrase activity. If the atmospheric pressure of CO2 were to exceed 45-50 mmHg, then CO2 would be entering blood stream through lungs instead of diffusing out. The

Convincing Outcomes from Sensitizing the Wistar-Strain Rats Used as Peanut-Allergy Model

724 words - 3 pages cells degranulation, amongst them histamine is assumed as the most important mediator that can cause all the pathological characteristics of allergic diseases.2,3,4 Differently from other food allergies such as eggs and cow’s milk, PEANUT ALLERGY is not often outgrown. Contrary to their appearance and name, peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) are not indeed a nut; they are a species in the legume/bean family. Even though peanuts and tree-nuts originate from

Avation and Its Impact on the Environmen

827 words - 4 pages the atmosphere over the past 200 years of the high temperature. There was a lot of discussion about how it can be achieved and stabilize the concentrations of CO2 in the future. * Nitrogen Oxides are presented through the atmosphere. N2O are very powerful in the chemistry of the troposphere and the stratosphere, and they are very important in ozone production and in the destruction processes. There are a number of sources (the oxidation of N2O like lightning and fossil fuel combustion) whose contribution to NOx concentrations in the upper troposphere is not well measured.

The Impacts Of Ocean Acidicfication

1874 words - 8 pages , salinity, and pressure. Under the oceans' current physical and biological conditions, carbonate and bicarbonate ions act as a buffer by absorbing and storing excess carbonic acid. This process buffers seawater against larger changes in pH. Under high-CO2 conditions, the reactions forming hydrogen ions and bicarbonate are favored, and the result is lowered pH and fewer carbonate ions. A paleoclimatic event relevant to the current ocean situation

Comparing the BMR of Mice and Humans

2198 words - 9 pages the same volume (i.e. 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4L), so one can compare different gases such as CO2 and O2 directly in volume units. Methods Refer to McMaster University, Biology 2A03. 2014. Lab Manual: Respiratory Gas Exchange in the Mouse, p5-11 for complete procedure. Results For this study, a control mouse weighing 25 g was measured for oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Carbon dioxide production was determined by

Metabolism Differences of a Cockroach and a Cricket

1442 words - 6 pages ., 2011). The “increased-intake hypothesis” states that with a higher Resting Metabolic Rate, more energy can be converted into secondary sexual traits (Okada, et. al., 2011). The “live-fast-die-young” hypothesis claims that having a high Resting Metabolic Rate is actually costly towards fitness and that this energy is allocated to non-maintenance functions (Okada, et. al., 2011). What we are testing: We are testing the metabolic rate of a cricket

The Nutty Side of Schools

1506 words - 7 pages and ban products containing peanuts so that students will feel safe and feel accepted into the “normal” group of students. It is certainly true that peanuts act as an important part of a healthy diet. The high amount of fiber along with the excessive amount of protein provide a healthy snack that children genuinely enjoy (Rinzler). It is just their luck that this legume also happens to be available in the spread that so many people enjoy as a

Pricing Issues in the Australian Wheat Industry

1641 words - 7 pages trade which was also affected by the drought in 2002-2003 with only10.8m/t being exported in that period. Once the drought had subsided in 2003 Australian production has risen to 25 million tonnes in the 2003-2004 season which tops the record production achieved in 99/00 of 24.8 million tonnes.Graph 1: Australian Wheat Production 1981 - 2001PriceEarly in 1996 wheat prices were historically high at up to 750US¢/Bu due to a world grain

Similar Essays

Global Warming Is Caused By Human Activities

1255 words - 5 pages Nowadays, global warming is a term that is widely used by everyone; however most people do not know what it means. Global warming is a phenomenon for which the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere and the oceans is increasing because of the high concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The rise in CO2 in the earth atmosphere has been observed since the industrial revolution began and it is projected to continue rising. According to

Effects Of Enhanced Concentration Of Carbon Dioxide On Plants

1306 words - 5 pages /10113/40372/1/IND22044776.pdf>. Rozema, Jelte, Alan Teramura, and Martyn Caldwell. "Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and Enhanced Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation: Gene to Ecosystem Responses." Carbon Dioxide and Environmental Stress. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999. 169-86. Print. Sage, Rowan F., and Sharon A. Cowling. "Implications of Stress in Low CO2 Atmospheres of the Past: Are Today's Plants Too Conservative for a High CO2 World?" Carbon Dioxide

The Effect Of Humidified And Heated Carbon Dioxide During Laparoscopic Surgury On Post Operative Pain And Incidence Of Hypothermia

3891 words - 16 pages 2004, Savel et al 2005). One study suggests that the duration of CO2 pneumoperitoneum, abdominal pressure and the flow rate of the gas are major co-factors in adhesion formation, putting the emphasis on the longer the pneumoperitoneum and the higher the flow rate all contribute to increased adhesion incidence (Yesildaglar et al 1999). Other studies suggest that the flow rate alone causes the most tissue damage due to high force of the pressurised

What Factors Control Carbon Mineralization And Flux In Bog Soils And How Would These Soils Respond To Global Climate Change?

2159 words - 9 pages pathway are constrained by the high acidity and shortage of compounds like Ni, K, and S (Nilsson and Bohlin 1993). Consequently the molar ratio of CO2 to CH4 averages about 500, although this ratio seems to be dependent on peat temperature (Moore and Knowles 1989). To understand how carbon mineralization in bog peats will be affected by climate change, one needs to understand the factors that influence CO2 and CH4 production and emission