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# Length Affects The Resistance Essay

3610 words - 14 pages

Aim:The aim of my investigation is to investigate how length affects the resistance of a length of wireThe resistance of a wire depends on certain factors. Some of these variables are listed below:* Length of wire* Diameter of wire* Temperature at which wire is at* The material of which wire is made out of* The potential difference across circuit* Cross sectional areaThese must be kept constant (except the length of the wire). The three major factors are explained bellow:1) Temperature When the temperature of a metal increases the resistance of that metal increases. This is because when the temperature increases the atoms of the metal vibrate more vigoursly because of the increase in energy. This means that the electrons have more difficulty getting through the wire as they collide with the atoms which are in their pathway. This increases the amount of collisions therefore there is more resistance. However it is hard to keep the temperature exactly the same as the room temperature might change from day to day. It is essential to use a low voltage because it means a low current that will not heat up the wires. If a high voltage is used the energy would be in form of heat which would make the experiment unfair. The investigation will be done at room temperature. The temperature cannot be investigated because it is hard to control the range of temperature needed without the correct apparatus.2) Length of wire The larger the length of the wire, the larger the resistance. This is because there are more atoms from the metal so there is more chance that the electrons would collide with one of the atoms therefore there is more resistance. The length of wire will be variable throughout the investigation. Electrons have a longer distance to travel when the wire is longer, so there are more collisions .The length of the wire will make a difference to the resistance. This is because when you have a long wire, the electrons have to squeeze together for longer to be able to pass through the wire than they do in order to be able to pass through a short wire.3) Type of material Different materials have different resistances because the materials' atomic structures are different so some metals have low resistances and some have high resistances. Therefore it is important to keep the material the same throughout the experiment unless a different material is used to check if the conclusion or theory works for all materials. If different materials are used throughout the investigation, it will affect the results. For example if sometimes copper is used and sometimes nichrome is used, the results where copper is used will be of a low resistance because of the material and not because of the diameter of the wire. Throughout the experiment Constantan will be used. The type of material will affect the amount of free electrons that are able to flow through the wire. The number of free electrons depends on the amount of electrons in the outer shell of the atoms, so if...

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