What is the disease:
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease to humans and other animals which is caused by parasitic protozoans.
You develop it by a female infected mosquito with parasites transmitting its bite through the skin. This can cause severe redness on the area and continuous itching which can cause the bite to inflame.
Malaria is quite rare in countries such as the United States, but it is most commonly found in countries such as Southern Asia and Africa.
It is said that there is 20 species around the world but there are 4 most common species that cause the disease in humans a few are known as:
Plasmodium falciparum, this is the most deadly out of all 4 to humans this lies in the salivary glands of the mosquito and it is transmitted to humans by the females of the Anopheles of the mosquito. As the mosquito takes the blood from the human during the process it only injects a tiny amount of its saliva into the skin wound, with this the saliva has antihemostatic molecules and anti-inflammatory enzymes within it which slow the body’s natural blood clotting process and produces the itching/stinging pain.
P.Vivax, this is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of malaria that reoccurs it’s also one of the most common kinds of parasites that infect humans. It can cause very violent headaches, high fever, vomiting, abundant sweating & expansion of the spleen.
P.Ovale, this causes tertian (recurs every second day) malaria in humans. This species is very closely related to both plasmodium falciparum and P.Vivax. P.Ovale has a quite inadequate dispersal.
General Life Cycle of the Malaria Parasite:
• The female Anopheles mosquito which transmits the malaria parasites feed on the person when the mosquito has pierced into the skin, the parasites known as sporozoites travel into the bloodstream where they then travel through the body to the liver and start the process of attacking the liver cells.
• Through a cycle of around 6-15 or so days the sporozoites continue to grow in size considerably & divide where they produce thousands of merozoites into each cell. A few malaria parasites e.g. P.Vivax (a protozoal parasite & human pathogen) can continue to stay in the liver for longer periods of time which causes the body to eventually relapse.
• Once the merozoites have invaded the liver cells they exit it and start to invade the cells in the bloodstream where they issue new formed merozoites from the blood cells over a period of 2-4 days, again hundreds of cells that are parasite infected in the bloodstream which then leads to depraved illnesses if not treated as soon as possible.
• Now the merozoites have invaded the cells the remaining merozoites infected cells dispense out the cycle of asexual multiplication. The merozoites in the effected cells then develop into male and female gametocytes which then start to continuously circulate in and around the bloodstream.
The whole time frame of this cycle depends on the type of malaria...