In 1814, the Quadruple Alliance composed of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain finally defeated France. They meet at the Congress of Vienna, and agreed to fashion a general peace settlement. In 1815, the main ideas of liberalism are the individual freedoms, such as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom, of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest (Mckay et al., 2012). In contrast, the principal ideas of nationalism are the idea that each “people had its own genius and its own specific unity, and they are often led to the desire for an independent political state” (Mckay et al., 2012). A few years later, Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859), Austrian Foreign Minister from 1809 to 1848) believed in absolute monarchy and suppressed all attempts at nationalism or liberalism during its period of unification, because he assumed that liberalism had been the cause for a generation of war (Mckay et al., 2012).
To continue, Metternich was against nationalism, because “the ideal was threatening to destroy the Austrian Empire and revolutionaries Europe” (Mckay et al., 2012). Therefore, in 1819, Metternich applied the Carlsbad Decrees, a set of reactionary restrictions in the German confederation, to cease the liberalism and nationalism in the German states.
In other words, Metternich opposed the liberalism and nationalism because he wanted to protect his society (e.g. class, rights and privileges) from them. At that time, he was in charge to governed Germany. Germany was a multiethnic state; as a result, he didn’t have a choice to oppose both liberalism and nationalism because it would hurt him and the Germany’ power of centralization. He also feared that Germany would split apart. Nevertheless, at the end, he gave in to the liberalism.
Until 1848, Karl Marx, a German philosopher, shifted the early nineteenth century. In his book, “The Communist Manifesto”, he argued the problem between the bourgeoisies (the middle class) and the proletariats (the industrial working class). In his theory, Marx argued that “one class had always exploited the other, and with the advent of modern industry, society was split more clearly than ever before” (Mckay et al., 2012). In other words, the strongest will always bully the weakest; it is only a matter of power and control. Similarly, it also resemble to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, in which a natural process that results in the survival and reproductive success of individual and groups best adapted to the environment. To conclude, Marx united different disciplines (sociology, economic, and human history in the same edifice. As a result, he combined them to create powerful ideas and insights to create one of the great secular religions out of the intellectual ferment of the early nineteenth century (Mckay et al., 2012).
In the late 1400, Europe was in a serious problem in both economical and political aspects. During that time, the rapid population growth caused a profound...