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Life Span Development Essay

1238 words - 5 pages

To this day various psychologists have proposed hundreds of different theories regarding the development humans. These theories are overseen by educational professionals, who incorporate the parts of the theories that they believe in, into ones own personal philosophy. Developmental theories help therapists understand potential outlooks regarding the needs of individuals during the diverse stages of life.What is life span development? Life span development is the stages of life. Life starts at the time one is conceived to the time they pass away. Throughout life an individual passes through these stages of life. These stages of life are studied by different theorist like Erikson. Erik Erikson was well-known for his own theory of personality development. He anticipated that humans go through psychosocial stages rather than psychosexual stages as Freud projected. Erikson recognized eight stages of psychosocial development that each individual goes through during his or her entire life span. In Erikson's theory, the stages of development process unfold as one goes through life. Each of these stages has tasks that should be mastered in order to construct toward a satisfying and healthy developed life. Those who do not master the task will have a hard time dealing with crises later on in life. These stages are: infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood. (Boyd and Bee, 2006)Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy)This stage is during the first year to 18 months of a life. A child is completely dependent upon others to satisfy his or her needs. If the child gets the satisfaction of the fulfillment and continues to receive the satisfaction on a regular basis, they will develop trust. Mistrust will develop if these needs are not fulfilled on a regular basis. If mistrust were to develop, the child would have trouble developing close relationships later in life. (Hudd, n.d)Autonomy vs. Doubt (Infancy)This stage is from 18 months to three years old. The child is trying to become more independent. A sense of autonomy is being developed by the child from its parents encouraging the child to try new things. Reassurance from the parents even if the child fails, will eventually help the sense of autonomy develop more. If reassurance is not offered the child will become doubtful or ashamed of his or herself. (Hudd, n.d)Initiative vs. Guilt (Early childhood)This is the third stage a life goes through. The age range for these tasks is from three to six. This occurs when the child wants to explore and question. The child now has simple self-control. When the child is encouraged to explore they feel good about themselves and continue to be curious. They take the initiative and investigate the world. When the parents forbid the activities of exploring, the child will feel guilty if they do explore without the encouragement. (Hudd, n.d)Industry vs. Inferiority (Middle and late childhood)This stage is from...

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