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Life Span Development Chap 3 Notes Essay

729 words - 3 pages

I.Evolutionary SelectionA.Natural Selection: the evolutionary process that favors individuals if a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce1.Charles Darwin - Origin of Species* observed that most organisms reproduce at rates that would cause enormous increases in population of most species, yet populations remain constant* concluded that those who survive do so because they are superior in a number of ways* "survival of the fittest" - pass the superior genes on to offspringB.Sociobiology: relies on the principles of evolutionary biology to explain social behavior1.Compared tens of thousands of animal species that have evolved some form of social life* developed laws of evolution and biology of social behavior* clarify the relation between animal and human behavior* focused attention on the costs and benefits of behavior* directed inquiry toward individual and group differences* highlighted the role of ecology in behavior* broadened our understanding of the cause of behavior2.Criticisms:* not adequately considering adaptability/experience* portrays humans as being controlled primarily by genes* explains behavior after the fact lacking predictive ability* discriminative against womenC.Evolutionary Psychology: Interactionist framework - contemporary approach that emphasizes1. behavior is a function of mechanisms2. requires input for activation3. is ultimately related to successful survival and reproduction4. not genetic determinism5. mechanisms derived from successful solutions to adaptive problems that humans face in ancestral environments6. Core issue is the nature of the psychological mechanisms created by selection and the adaptive functions they serve.7. Psychological mechanisms require input to be activated and function.8. Examples:* Fears/phobias (strangers, snakes, spiders, heights, open spaces, darkness)* Imitation of high-status rather than low-status models* Worldwide preference for mates who are kind, intelligent and dependableII.HeredityA.Genes - the units of hereditary information, compose of DNA1. DNA - complex molecule that contains genetic information2. Acts as a blueprint for cells to reproduce.3. Building blocks of chromosomes.*Each cell contains 46 chromosomes (threadlike structures, 23 pairs, contain DNA)B.Reproduction - fertilization of a female's gamete (ovum) by a males gamate (sperm)1. Gamates - human reproductive cells/produced by the process of meiosis2. Meiosis - cell division in which pair of chromosomes separates3. Zygote - single cell formed through fertilization4. 10-15% of American couples are infertile5. Female Fertility Problems* damaged fallopian tubes * damaged ovaries* Endometriosis * pelvic inflammatory disease* fibroid tumor * hostile cervical mucous* abnormal...

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