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Life Span Development Chap 5 Notes Essay

699 words - 3 pages

I. Reflexes - Born with reflexes and skills necessary to sustain life (sucking, swallowing, Moro/startle reflex, grasping, rooting, Babinsky, stepping, looking, and perceptual abilities like seeing, hearing and smelling)II. Growth Patterns* Cephalocaudel pattern - top to bottom* Proximodistal pattern - center out* Gross motor skills - large muscle activities (walking)* Fine motor skills - finely tuned movements (finger dexterity)* Average North American newborn is 20 inches long and weighs 7.5 pounds. Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the first year and triple their weightIII. The Brain (see additional handout)IV. Brain's development - 3 processes in the development of neurons* cell production - 10-26 weeks after conception, 250,000 neurons per minute* cell migration (proximodistal growth pattern) Neuron movement from neat the center of the brain* cell elaboration - axon and dendrites grow from connections with other cells, continues years after birth, during infancy dendrite branching is extensive* myelination - process in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, increasing the speed of information traveling through the nervous system. Begins prenatal and continues after birth.V.Infant States*deep sleep *regular sleep *drowsy *alert activity *alert and focused attention *inflexibility focused *SIDSVI.Nutrition* Infants need to consume about 50 calories for each pound of weight* Breast feeding superior to bottle feeding (especially important for building up immune system)* Marasmus - severe protein-calories malnutrition* Malnourished infants are shorter in stature and slower in cognitive growth in middle and late childhoodVII.Sensory and Perceptional Development* sensation - physical energy contacts the sensory receptors* perception - brain interprets what is sensed* visual perception - infants prefer patterns over colors or brightness, visual acuity 20/200 for newborn by 6 months 20/100* visual cliff - demonstrates depth perception* research suggests ability to hears exists before birth (Cat in the Hat experiment)* newborns clearly respond to touch (reflexes) fee pain - challenges medical practice of operating on newborns without providing anesthesia, newborns sensitive to unpleasant odors and can recognize mother's breast milk by 2-7 days, sensitive to different tastes sweet/sour (does not like shrimp)* intermodal perception - coordination and...

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