This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Life Threatning Emergency: Myocardial Infaction Essay

3646 words - 15 pages

Introduction/Etiology and Pathophysiology of STEMI
Myocardial infarction is a serious and potentially life threatening emergency. Rapid assessment and diagnosis is imperative to correctly treat a patient. It is essential for the nurse and healthcare team to understand the diagnostic procedures, lab tests, and treatments that can provide life -saving treatment for a patient presenting with chest pain. Myocardial infarctions can occur in different parts of the heart and can be given different classifications depending on the presenting symptoms. The most serious type of myocardial infarction is classified as an ST-elevation myocardial infarction or STEMI.
A STEMI is one type of heart ...view middle of the document...

Most of these people are not hospitalized and experience a sudden death from cardiac arrest (AHA, 2010). “Most myocardial infarctions are due to atherosclerosis of a coronary artery, rupture of the plaque, subsequent thrombosis, occlusion of blood flow, coronary artery spasm, platelet aggregation, or emboli from mural thrombi” (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 829).
Myocardial infarctions often begin with infarction of the subendocardial layer of cardiac muscle, which has the longest myofibrils, greatest oxygen demand, and the poorest oxygen supply (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). There are two other zones that surround the initial area of infarction. The first is the zone of injury, which is tissue that is injured but not necrotic. This is when the ST elevation will show on the ECG (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). The second is the zone of ischemia, which is tissue that is oxygen deprived. This is when a T-wave inversion may show on the ECG (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). It causes a decrease in oxygen in the heart, which may lead to local vasodilation of blood vessels, acidosis, and electrolyte imbalances (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). In response to the decrease in oxygen, or hypoxia, and intense pain, epinephrine and norepinephrine are released, increasing the heart’s rate, contractility, and afterload (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). This only leads to depriving the heart of even more oxygen.
Physical changes to the heart do not occur until six hours after the infarction, which is why the need for intervention in the first four to six hours is crucial to get the blood flow restored (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). When the infarction only involves the subendocardium it is called a subendocardial MI, and when all three layers are involved, it is called a transdermal MI (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). The infracted area of the heart goes from turning blue and swollen after six hours, to gray with yellow streaks after forty-eight hours (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). Once eight to ten days has passed, granulation tissue begins to form on the edges of the necrotic tissue, which then develops into a firm scar in about two to three months (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 830). The problem with this scar tissue is that it will not contract or conduct electricity, which many times will lead to ventricular dysrhythmias. How a person responds to a myocardial infarction all depends on which coronary artery or arteries were obstructed and which part of the left ventricle was damaged (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013, p. 831).
Prevalence of the Disease and Risk Factors
According to the American Heart Society (2013), 250,000 Americans experience ST-elevated myocardial infarctions each year. This 250,000 Americans represents 25% to 40% of all 683,000 US patient diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome each year (AHA, 2013). Of the 250,000 patients who experience a STEMI,...

Find Another Essay On Life Threatning Emergency: Myocardial Infaction

Medication Errors in Children Essay

723 words - 3 pages why more has not been done on training of our EMS and ambulatory staff, but hopefully this will change in the future. This was a reminder that with each medication given, a life weighs in the balance. References Hoyle, J., Davis, A., Putman, K., Trytko, J., Fales, W. . (2011). Medication Dosing Errors in Pediatric Pateints Treated by Emergency Medical Services. Prehospital Emergency Care Vol 16/1, 59-66. Mehndiratta, S. (January 2012). Strategies to reduce medication errors in pediatric ambulatory settings. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine Vol 58/Issue 1, 47-52.

Sepsis Bundles Saving Lives Essay

2077 words - 9 pages presenting to emergency departments with early signs and symptoms have a greater chance of surviving sepsis with the initiative of these protocols. Sepsis Bundles Saving Lives Sepsis as defined, is a potentially life threatening infection, that if left untreated, can lead to septic shock with subsequent organ failure and unfortunate death. Although numerous initiatives have been implemented to help fight the life threatening effects of

Diver Lecture Interview

892 words - 4 pages Dr. D.L. Divers (2010), Director of the Hoffman Heart and Vascular Institute, lectured on the service period for the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) procedure. During his study, he adopted Lean processes, which provided new improved outcomes for the life-saving procedure. Developed Lean strategies decrease the time for patients who arrived at the medical facility suffering from this grave illness. Set core measurements

Detection and Treatment of Patients with Severe Sepsis

2519 words - 10 pages and potentially hyperglycemia which can lead to apoptosis (Zawistowski, 2013). Noradrenaline and adrenaline are recommended over dopamine as they have less impact on heart rate and myocardial oxygen consumption (Raghavan & Marik, 2006). Noradrenaline and adrenaline are contraindicated in patients with hypotension unless deemed an emergency situation such as shock in order to maintain blood pressure until IVF replacement can be completed (Medsafe

Hope lives where death seems t

1059 words - 4 pages malady, pericardial tamponade, was present. My partner confirmed it. Every time I gave him a breath, the patient lost a palpable pulse due to the extreme pressure within the chest cavity. With the patient not conscious and able to make his own choice, I chose Medical Center because of their expertise and the fact that they were at that time the preferred trauma center in east Texas. This was their specialty, as was it the Emergency Trauma Physician's

Hope Lives Where Death Seems t

1059 words - 4 pages malady, pericardial tamponade, was present. My partner confirmed it. Every time I gave him a breath, the patient lost a palpable pulse due to the extreme pressure within the chest cavity. With the patient not conscious and able to make his own choice, I chose Medical Center because of their expertise and the fact that they were at that time the preferred trauma center in east Texas. This was their specialty, as was it the Emergency Trauma Physician's

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Preventing Damage After Cardiac Arrest

1082 words - 4 pages ., Götberg, M., Olivecrona, G., Kanski, M., Koul, S., et al. (2011). Optimal timing of hypothermia in relation to myocardial reperfusion. Basic Research in Cardiology, 106(5), 697-708. Hammer, L., Vitrat, F., Savary, D., Debaty, G., Santre, C., Durand, M., et al. (2009). Immediate prehospital hypothermia protocol in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 27(5), 570-573. Torgersen, J., Strand

People Having a High Percentage of Heart Attack

761 words - 4 pages Do you know that all people have a high percentage of having a heart attack? Moreover, most people do not know what does that mean and why does that happen. A heart attack or MI is a serious medical emergency in which the supply of blood to the heart is suddenly blocked, usually by a blood clotting. lack of blood to the heart can seriously damage the heart muscle. It is known medically as a myocardial infarction. Most heart attacks are

Recognizing the Need for Cultural Change

1347 words - 5 pages , we had a patient that came in through the emergency room and he was having an acute myocardial infract and none of us was prepared for what we encountered. We stayed focused and we worked through the problem as a team and we were able to save someone’s life. The heart team was paged. We furiously ran down the hallway to talk to the patient. The only problem was we couldn’t understand him. He was Hindu. We frantically asked for a

The Dangers of Hypertension

2301 words - 9 pages weight groups. Because obesity can lead to the development of hypertension and diabetes it is a major predisposing factor for early-onset of myocardial infarction. (Lee, D.S and Chiu, M. et al.) Education: Lack of education hinders understanding of the system. Education increases chances and income security, creating the knowledge and ability needed to solve problems and give the individual the sense of control in life. The higher education one

Written Assignment

2595 words - 11 pages , Cornwell, & Haider (2011) , females of 65+ years are 47% less likely to die from injury in hospital than males, however they are 79.6% more likely to suffer from injure. As females have a longer life expectancy than males it is understandable why this occurs. Attributing factors to the high likelihood of an elderly person suffering from a traumatic event are the cardiac, respiratory and neurological deteriorations associated with aging. The most

Similar Essays

Myocardial Ischemia: The Lack Of Oxygen

2113 words - 8 pages acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represented by unpredictable chest pain with occurrences that are new in onset, occur at rest, or have a worsening pattern. Unstable angina is easily provoked with minimal to no exertion, while sleep or rest and its frequency increases. UA represents a medical emergency (Lewis et al., 2010). Angina is chest pain caused by a lack of oxygen to the myocardial tissues; therefore, the cardiovascular system is affected

Cardiovascular Disease In Adults Essay

1197 words - 5 pages diet and also due to lack of physical activity particularly people change their work from agriculture to small manufacturing business suffer from hypertension and CVD. {Barnett, 1996 #11} There are other very important reasons for high mortality rate in rural area particularly patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction and strokes. Emergency medical facilities and hospitals in rural area is particularly less advanced in term of

Pathophysiology And Treatment Of Hypertension Essay

1024 words - 5 pages LIFE study also reveals that patients who took losartan showed better reduction of morbidity and mortality due to higher reduction in strokes (Kaplan, 2006). This medication is well tolerated. However, some studies revealed that losartan can increase the risk of myocardial infarction (Hall & Strauss, 2006). Conclusion In conclusion, the prevalence of hypertension in developed countries remains high and it is often associated with various secondary

Dehydration Essay

1549 words - 7 pages , this type of methods can help Mr Brown to be clearly alerted. A band (e.g Medic Aid) that recognises Mr Brown as a diabetes patient should be worn, this band should include details of the person or agencies to contact during emergency. Diabetes is a long lasting illness and is convincingly related to unhealthy life style and stressors from life that can affect the person emotional wellbeing. Bronisz ‘et al.’, (2012) identified that, autonomic