Likert Scales: Composition, Opportunities, And Limitations

945 words - 4 pages

Performance analysis and quality monitoring are essential to any organization to ensure programs and different organizational activities are all aligned and functioning according to the desired plan. One of the best indications and commonly used is patients’ satisfaction and feedback; hence, the widespread use of surveying techniques. Likert scales, especially, have been very helpful in this regard due to their simplicity, ease to conduct and interpret, and high specificity as to which aspects are being measured. In fact, surveying before and after implementing changes proves very helpful as it indicates the level of success or failure. So, what is the composition of a Likert scale and what are the opportunities and limitations of this survey instrument?

Origin and composition of Likert scale
The way attitudinal research has changed greatly since Likert, R. introduced his scale in 1932 (Edmondson, Edwards, & Boyer, 2012). It uses the usual bipolar response points that today almost everyone is familiar with. According to Edmondson, Edwards, and Boyer (2012), Likert scale has proved more reliable and used only half the number of items used by other popular methods at the time of its introduction. Also, in most cases, the scale does not require judges which added to its simplicity. Since then, Likert scale has become very popular and many modifications have been added to enhance the accuracy of the results (Edmondson, Edwards, & Boyer, 2012).
Likert scale is composed of the analysis of a series of statements to which respondents agree or disagree with variable degrees (Albaum, 1997). According to Edmondson, Edwards, and Boyer (2012), originally, Likert scale was composed of 4 different components. First one was strictly a yes/no/unsure question. The second is a simple multiple choice question. The third is composed of a statement followed by five response options of strongly agree/agree/undecided/disagree/strongly disagree. The fourth component is has the same options like the third one but the statement has a conflicting fact. Interestingly, Albaum (1997) described a different model of Likert scale composed by distinguishing between attitude direction and the strength of that attitude. This requires a first question to whether the respondent agree or disagree followed by a second question about the strength of his/her agreement or disagreement.
Development of questions
According to Edmondson, Edwards, and Boyer (2012), there are four steps to compose a likert scale: generating the items, assigning ratings to items, selecting the items, and administering the final scale. The rating step requires judges to give a specific value on a scale from 1 to 5 according the relevance of the item to subject researched. Also, noted by Edmondson, Edwards, and Boyer (2012), the number of scale points have been modified from the originally 5 introduced by Likert, R.
According to Grogan, Conner, Willits, and Norman (1995), in the UK, general practitioners have...

Find Another Essay On Likert Scales: Composition, Opportunities, and Limitations

Measurement and Scaling Concepts Essay

574 words - 2 pages to assign objects to numbers in a meaningful way (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Scaling is divided into two categories, unidimensional and multidimensional. Unidimensional scales involve the measure of less or more, for example: something is taller or shorter, bigger or smaller and so on (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). The more complex multidimensional scaling can involve methods such a concept mapping, which is a method of scaling that, can be used

Market Research Implementation: McDonalds Essay

1260 words - 5 pages will provide the researcher a more accurate and honest result from respondents. This method “questionnaire” can be found easy to perform, and it compiles a lot of minimal details that the researcher needs to focus on. Confusing questions or wordiness can complicate the results, and at the same time the respondent can decide not to completely finish the questions. Nondirective Interviews & Likert scales Nondirective interviews are a successful

Evaluating and Criticizing the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

1553 words - 7 pages scales have been developed, however, these scales were unable to develop items for PA and NA that were statistically independent of each other. In an attempt to operationalize the orthogonal dimensions of positive and negative affect, Watson, Clark & and Tellegen (1988) developed The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (i.e. PANAS). In the following review, I will evaluate and critique the PANAS, as a measure of trait affect, focusing on the

Determination of Body Composition

1728 words - 7 pages body fat. Different methods have both adventages, as well as limitations. Furthermore, they might provide sources of measurement error. (Ulijaszek, 1999; Willet, 1998; Gibson, 2005) 1.2 Assessment of body composition The anthropometric practices can measure the FM and FFM and therefore their amount and proportion can be used as determinants of nutritional status at both, the individual

REVIEW OF THE PROFILE OF CREATIVE ABILITIES

1232 words - 5 pages grants creativeness and analyzes the next elements: quantity of new elements put into the image, originality, if the drawing is changed through location or position, and if the child's drawing provides perspective. This is untimed. The home and educational rating scales are the same 36-item forms having a 4-point Likert scale depending on how frequently the kid exhibits each behavior or characteristic. The PCA was created for 3 reasons: to

Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: Mediated by Transformational Leadership

3372 words - 13 pages to (5) strongly agree. The scales includes single question to asses the degree of satisfaction with the work itself, supervision, co-workers, pay, promotion opportunities, and the job in general. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the score for the present study sample was 0.76. Transformational Leadership Style Questionnaire The Transformational Leadership sub-scale of leadership questionnaire MLQ-5 was used to measure transformational

Business Research Method, Part III

3081 words - 12 pages our confectioner client. One of the first questions we asked was how current market trends and growth opportunities in the candy industry could affect the launch of new product-lines. Parker (2005) in his extensive examination of trends, growth opportunities, and forecasted behaviors in the candy industry provides valuable insight into the potential upside and risks our decisions. This information provided our research team with key market-data to

lame

1456 words - 6 pages conditions are. Deception will be used, since women will believe they are interviewing for actual jobs. Thus, an extensive debriefing and fair compensation will be given to participants. Measures. Mood scale. We will use Helper and Albarracín’s (2013) modified Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Items will be scored on a 7-point Likert scale in two scales: the Positive Affect scale (19 items; e.g. “In general (on average), I feel

Study Abroad

905 words - 4 pages volunteers was appropriate for the purpose of this study. There were enough participants in this study. Two-thirds of the sample were students traveling to Australia; that left the remaining participants traveling to New Zealand which was approximately 228 students. The research instruments differed both pre- and posttest. The pretest was a “7-item scale developed by Stern et al.” (p. 409) while the posttest was a Likert scale. There is no indication

Computerized Provider Order Entry Pre-Deployment Evaluation Plan

2346 words - 9 pages formation of this evaluation plan including the goals, methodology, and tools to be used. The final sections cover the ethical implications and dissemination of findings, along with the limitations and opportunities that the study provides. Goals of Evaluation Plan and the PICO Question The practice of evaluation is done to uncover empirical data that will guide decision-making and enhance the knowledge base on the topic of interest. The

Software Development Methodology

1840 words - 8 pages There is many software development methodologies exist that is used to control the process of developing a software system. No exact system was found which could help the software engineers for selection of best software development methodology. This paper present the framework of expert system combined with Likert scale. With the help of Likert scale we create a rule based model and assign some weighted score to each methodology and develop a

Similar Essays

The Opportunities And Limitations In Using A Single Camera

832 words - 3 pages The Opportunities and Limitations in Using a Single Camera In the early days of film making the director would not have the choice of using the multi-camera setups and editing suites that we have today. He or she would have just one camera to shoot all the shots needed and then when it came to the editing process, all the shots would need to be selected, the different frames sliced apart, and spliced back together in the desired order

Special Education Critique And Limitations Cited By Researchers

1568 words - 6 pages successfully work with students with disabilities in the classroom, she might have felt more confident in her abilities. Another common thread noted in research was the use of basic research strategies, some of which was due to the nature of the topic. When trying to gain perspective about an attitude, qualitative instruments such as Likert scales, interviews and observations must be used. In some studies, such as Short and Martin’s (2005), all

Psychiatric Rating Scales Essay

1387 words - 6 pages percentiles, Likert scales, ratings of experience, age groupings, and disease or symptom severity. Lastly, there is interval data, also known as numerical data. Interval data is used for observations that have equal intervals in the values being measured. They have a universally accepted equidistant meaning and quantify the observations. Numerical data can further be divided into continuous -measuring a continuous value like age or temperature

Measurement Scales Essay

936 words - 4 pages differences can be measured. On a scale of 10 the difference between three and four is the same difference as between seven and eight (Aaker, Kumar, & Day, 2007). A Likert scale is a commonly used in questionnaires, which is also considered an interval scale. Likert scales are an "agreement scale or attitudinal measurement" where researchers "can calculate mean scores which can then be compared" ("Interval scale," 2011). In the questionnaire a panel of