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Linguistic Theories Essay

1499 words - 6 pages

In the past, the study of grammar has been investigated for centuries, it was also significantly role in language teaching and learning. The reasons for teaching and learning are different in each period. In some eras, a major aim of teaching and learning was making learners to be able to communicate. In others, it was essentially taught for the purposes of reading and writing. For these reasons, the studies of two linguistic theories, the traditional grammar and the structuralism were created. They can be viewed differences by views on language, language learning and teaching as well as strengths and weaknesses as follows.
Traditional grammar is one of the most significant grammar teaching, this kind of grammar was influenced by the Greek scholars of the fourth and fifth century BC. Its views on language is prescriptive according to rules of correctness. For example, “ I did not do nothing” this sentence is exactly incorrect because in traditional grammar, one negative cannot overlap another negative. In nineteenth century, language was considered diachronically. Also, it is refer to Biology; language can be dead or alive it was the open-system which can be changed all the time as same as life’s development. Traditionalist believed that the current languages were considered to be degenerate; thus, studying language should be looked at the ancestor because it was a purest form. Also, written language should be studied more than spoken language because spoken language could be variously changed overtime. Some words were gone but some still exist. Therefore, traditionalist assumed that written language is more constant. In addition, traditional grammar analyzed feature of language as parts of speech or eight word classes: noun, verb, participle, article, pronoun, preposition, adverb and conjunction.
By/In twentieth century, there was a significant development in the history of grammar, views on language was rather changed. Traditional grammar was dissatisfied by the early modern linguists by reason of its inconsistency. Analyzing feature of language as parts of speech cannot clarify by their meaning. For example, in a sentence He runs home. Not only home is the name of a place, but it also modifies runs. Confusion occurs when the two classification of noun and adverb overlap. Hence, structural linguistics were constructed. It analyzes language by dividing a sentence into the smallest part, called immediate constituents (IC analysis) or slot and filler. This process analyzes the sentence in paradigmatic way. In order to find the beginning of structuralism, this kind of grammar came from the work of Ferdinand de Saussure. He was the first linguist who perceived that each language should be analyzed its own structure. The early modern linguists observed that linguistics ought to be an empirical science. It can be proved not from sentiment or attitude. For instance, it might be judge from score or performance. Due to the notion of structural...

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