Oxfam India working papers series September 2010 OIWPS - III
A. K. Shiva Kumar and
Essential Services Elementary Education in India: Progress, Setbacks, and Challenges
This paper provides a stocktaking of progress and shortcomings in India's march towards universalisation of elementary education (UEE), whilst addressing concerns of equity, inclusion, and quality from the central focus which looks into the dimensions of locational disadvantage, social exclusion, gender disparity, and special needs for children of other neglected groups. It focuses on gaps in enrolment, infrastructural provisioning, equity concerns in terms of being inclusive in the context of schools functioning, teachers (social group, training, motivation, transaction and so on), management, and governance issues. The extent and manifestations of non-inclusion or exclusion in the educational context is also related to the capacity of the State as refl ected in the policy fuzziness and ambiguities. Six areas for public action are suggested. Apart from structural reforms, a much stronger public pressure backed by better and shared public reasoning is required for overcoming the challenges for attainment of compulsory and free education to all children
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Produced by: Oxfam India
For more information, please contact:
Avinash Kumar Theme Lead - Essential Services Oxfam India Plot No. 1, Community Centre 2nd Floor (Above Sujan Mahinder Hospital) New Friends Colony, New Delhi - 110 025 Tel: 91 11 4653 8000 Website: www.oxfamindia.org
Authors: A.K. Shiva Kumar and Preet Rustagi
A. K. Shiva Kumar is a development economist and Adviser to UNICEF, India. He is also Visiting Professor at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad and teaches economics and public policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. Shiv works on issues of poverty, health, nutrition, basic education, women's right and children's rights. He is closely involved with development evaluation and is a founding member of the International Development Evaluation Association. He has been a regular contributor to UNDP's Human Development Reports and National Human Development Reports. His areas of interest include human development, social sector analysis, and the impact of development policies on children and women. He works closely with several non-governmental organizations engaged in the promotion of health, human rights and environment. Shiv did his M.A. in Economics from Bangalore...