Linguistica Essay

9857 words - 39 pages

Oxfam India working papers series September 2010 OIWPS - III
A. K. Shiva Kumar and
Preet Rustagi
Essential Services Elementary Education in India: Progress, Setbacks, and Challenges

This paper provides a stocktaking of progress and shortcomings in India's march towards universalisation of elementary education (UEE), whilst addressing concerns of equity, inclusion, and quality from the central focus which looks into the dimensions of locational disadvantage, social exclusion, gender disparity, and special needs for children of other neglected groups. It focuses on gaps in enrolment, infrastructural provisioning, equity concerns in terms of being inclusive in the context of schools functioning, teachers (social group, training, motivation, transaction and so on), management, and governance issues. The extent and manifestations of non-inclusion or exclusion in the educational context is also related to the capacity of the State as refl ected in the policy fuzziness and ambiguities. Six areas for public action are suggested. Apart from structural reforms, a much stronger public pressure backed by better and shared public reasoning is required for overcoming the challenges for attainment of compulsory and free education to all children
Abstract
Disclaimer: Oxfam India Working Paper Series disseminates the fi nding of the work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the fi ndings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The fi ndings, interpretations, and conclusion expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of Oxfam India.
Produced by: Oxfam India

For more information, please contact:
Avinash Kumar Theme Lead - Essential Services Oxfam India Plot No. 1, Community Centre 2nd Floor (Above Sujan Mahinder Hospital) New Friends Colony, New Delhi - 110 025 Tel: 91 11 4653 8000 Website: www.oxfamindia.org
Authors: A.K. Shiva Kumar and Preet Rustagi
A. K. Shiva Kumar is a development economist and Adviser to UNICEF, India. He is also Visiting Professor at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad and teaches economics and public policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. Shiv works on issues of poverty, health, nutrition, basic education, women's right and children's rights. He is closely involved with development evaluation and is a founding member of the International Development Evaluation Association. He has been a regular contributor to UNDP's Human Development Reports and National Human Development Reports. His areas of interest include human development, social sector analysis, and the impact of development policies on children and women. He works closely with several non-governmental organizations engaged in the promotion of health, human rights and environment. Shiv did his M.A. in Economics from Bangalore...

Find Another Essay On linguistica

Javanese Politeness system Essay

2073 words - 8 pages Gabriele Kasper, (2001). 'Internal and external modification in interlanguage request realization'. In: S. Blum-Kulka, J. House and G. Kasper, eds., 2001a, pp. 221-247.Guskova, Antonina, (2004). Syntax der H6flichkeitsformen im Ungarischen aufgrund der Bedeu- tungsentwicklung der Personalpronomen. Acta Linguistica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 1-43.Heryanto, Ariel. 1995. Language of development and development of language : the case of Indonesia

Figure retoriche Essay

3523 words - 14 pages un concetto per difetto o per eccesso.Ipostasi(dal greco hypostasys, "materia condensata"): nell' ambito della linguistica indica il passaggio di una parola da una categoria grammaticale a un'altra. Come figura retorica indica la concretizzazione e personificazione di un concetto astratto.IpotiposiFigura retorica che consiste nel descrivere qlco. con particolare evidenza e vivacità • gr. hypotyposis "abbozzo", deriv. di hypotypo&ucirc

Reality and Illusion in Shakespeare's Hamlet - Reality, Appearance and Deception

896 words - 4 pages Reality and Illusion in Hamlet   Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, begins with the appearance of a ghost, an apparition, possibly a hallucination. Thus, from the beginning, Shakespeare presents the air of uncertainty, of the unnatural, which drives the action of the play and develops in the protagonist as a struggle to clarify what only seems to be absolute and what is actually reality. Hamlet's mind, therefore, becomes the central force of the

Sub-plots in Hamlet

1118 words - 4 pages Sub-plots in Hamlet   There are many things that critics say make Hamlet a "Great Work," one of which is the way that Shakespeare masterfully incorporates so many sub-plots into the story, and ties them all into the main plot of Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s murder. By the end of Act I, not only is the main plot identified, but many other sub-plots are introduced. Among the sub-plots are trust in the Ghost of King Hamlet, Fortinbras, and

Hamlet as Victim and Hero

1301 words - 5 pages Hamlet as Victim and Hero      Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Shakespearean tragedy, tells the story of Prince Hamlet, who gained the knowledge of a terrible incident that his kingdom had suffered. Claudius, the king of Denmark and Hamlet's uncle, had killed his own brother, the king, who was also the father of Hamlet, and married his brother's widow. Hamlet suffered these traumas to a severe degree, and his only relief was to defeat his

Essay on Light and Dark in Antigone

1188 words - 5 pages Use of Light and Dark in Antigone   The "Golden Age" of Greece is noted for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos

charant Creon as the Main Character of Antigone

1231 words - 5 pages Creon as the Main Character of Antigone   Throughout the Greek play Antigone by Sophocles, there exists a dispute as to who should receive the designation of main character. Antigone, the daughter of the cursed King Oedipus, as well as Creon, stately king of Thebes, both appear as the key figures in this historic play. I believe that Creon, king of Thebes, should be considered the main character in this work of Greek theater. Three

Free Macbeth Essays: Sleep and Sleeplessness

525 words - 2 pages The Sleep and Sleeplessness Motif in Macbeth We have consciences that function to tell us the difference between right and wrong. If we have clear consciences, we usually possess the ability to sleep. But when our consciences are full of guilt, we experience a state of sleeplessness. In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses the sleep and sleeplessness motif to represent Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's consciences and the effect Macbeth's conscience has on

Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield

898 words - 4 pages Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield   Efficacy lies at the heart of human desires for immortality. Characters throughout literature and art are depicted as wanting to step aside and see what their world would be like without their individual contributions. The literary classic A Christmas Carol and the more recent, but ageless, film It’s Wonderful Life both use outside influences (three ghosts and Clarence the Angel

Essay on Identity in Song of Solomon

2172 words - 9 pages Searching for Identity in Song of Solomon         Abstract: Whether Africans really fly or just escape a monumental burden, perhaps only through death, is a decision Toni Morrison has apparently left to her readers. Never the less, no matter what you believe, within Song of Solomon, the suggestion is, that in order to "fly" you must go back to the beginning, back to your roots. You must learn the "art" from the old messages.   O

The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine

904 words - 4 pages The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine    The stories of Oedipus, as told through Seneca's Oedipus and Cocteau's The Infernal Machine, contain both similarites and differences. Both authors portray the character of Oedipus as being obstinate, ignorant, and inquisitive. Yet Seneca and Cocteau differ on their interpretation of the motives that propelled these characteristics of Oedipus. Seneca portrays Oedipus as a

Similar Essays

Linguistica Essay

1776 words - 7 pages Guidelines for linguistics assignments: Linguistic examples and bibliographies Andrew McIntyre 1. Citing linguistic examples When writing on linguistic subjects, it is useful to distinguish object language (the expressions you are talking about) from metalanguage (expressions you are using to talk about the object language expressions). Therefore, object language expressions are put in italics if you are using a computer (and underlined if hand

Culture And Communication Essay

1361 words - 5 pages e atividades de letramento em sala de aula. Revista Internacional de Lengua Portuguesa, 12, 82-94.Byrnes, H. (1991). Reflections on the development of cross-cultural communicative competence in the foreign language classroom. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Foreign language acquisition research and the classroom, (pp. 205-218). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1-47.Cavalcanti, M. (1991). Interao Guarani/No-Guarani: Etnocentrismo naturalizado na questo do silncio inter-turnos. Trabalhos em Linguistica Aplicada, 18: 101-110.

Instructional Strategies Essay

1714 words - 7 pages responding to learner needs: Module for ESL teacher training. Retrieved March 13, 21012 from, http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED367196&site=ehost-live&scope=site Krashen, S. D. (1981). The fundamental pedagogical principle in second language teaching. Studia Linguistica, 35(1-2), 50-70. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from,http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http

Speech Errors As Presented In The Literature Of Linguistics

2951 words - 12 pages of the tongue as linguistic evidence: Finnish word initial segments and vowel harmony. Folia (Linguistica 31. 161=175. Nooteboom, Sieb G. 1969. The tongue slips into patterns. Leyden (studies in linguistics and phonetics. The Hague: Mouton, 114- 32 Pincott. Jena, Most of us live in fear of unleashing a Freudian slip, Do you?. March 13, 2012 Valeo, Tom. Prefrontal cortex underlies slips of the tongue. September 2009. Online article. Warren, Paul. The Psychology of Spoonerisms. The Dominion Post, November 28, 2007.