Majority of people associate cigarette smoking and tobacco with lung cancer and breathing problems. However, in addition to these, smoking is a major cause of cardiovascular disease that is, blood vessel and heart diseases. Tobacco and cigarette smoking have been regarded as major risk factors for different chronic diseases Everett (2004). According to AHA (American Heart Association) cigarette smoking is seen as the most significant and preventable reason for many premature deaths McCay et al. (2009). Smoking has been highly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Rhonda’s family presents evidence of cardiovascular diseases. Her prolonged smoking worsened her situation, and therefore there must be a relationship between smoking and these illnesses. This paper assess the link that exists between the two( smoking and the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases) with reference to the current research findings, and in relation to the case study that presents Rhonda as being a previous heavy smoker for over fifteen years, and who has been suffering from hypertension for nine years now.
Brief history on Smoking and cardiovascular diseases
In the 1960s, some research scientists discovered that smoking causes blood vessel diseases, either inside or outside the heart Wilhelmsen (1991). Other researches have been conducted since this period, most of them showing that there exists a strong relationship between cardiovascular diseases and smoking Haustein (2009). Most of the people, who suffer from high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, or exhibit high levels of cholesterol, are exposed to the risk of contracting cardiovascular disorders. Rhonda has had hypertension (high blood pressure) for nine years, and she in fact took medication for this and for her high cholesterol. Additionally, she has had mild depressions, which she keeps in check with intermittent psychotherapy sessions. The combination of all these risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in addition to smoking, must have placed Rhonda at an even greater risk.
Link between Smoking and cardiovascular diseases
The likelihood of developing a cardiovascular disease increases with ones lifetime exposure to smoking Wang (2006). In this case, the numbers of cigarettes that are smoked each day are of major concern. Rhonda’s habit of smoking about a pack of cigarettes per day, for about fifteen years is shocking. According to the National Research Council of the United States (1986) a large number of epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies in a variety of settings and among diverse population groups have provided very consistent evidence of the primary role of tobacco smoking in the genesis of atherosclerotic events and acute cardiovascular diseases. In the following section, a review of the current pathophysiological and epidemiological evidence, linking smoking and cardiovascular disease has been given.
Epidemiology and smoking
Smoking has been...