Lipids, Carbs And Protiens. Letter Form, Great Info, Needs Grammatical Corrections!

1274 words - 5 pages

Dear Mom,So it's Thanksgiving and let us say for arguments sake that while we are all gathered around the table that for one reason or another the conversation comes to an abrupt end... Now if you are ailing at the thought, don't for I will be able to save the day!I have just recently learned all about what macromolecules are in foods how they are synthesized and how they are broken down and used within our digestive system. Here we go!Let's see what we have in front of us, some salad--garden--this is composed of vegetables and a fruit, tomato. These vegetables contain mainly cellulose which in reality doesn't do us any good, but that's later. Next we have mashed potatoes and rolls you can't forget the rolls. Then there is the main event, the turkey this has some gravy which if I am not mistaken has some fresh celery in it, crunchy, I like it. This is really the idea of our meal without mentioning the pies waiting at the end.All of the foods on the table contain at least one of three types of molecules. The first of which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are structural molecules, but more importantly they are the source for quick energy, sugars and starches are made of carbohydrates. Not to get too technical for you but they are composed of repeating units of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ration. That is to say that if a molecule has 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens, and 6 oxygens, it would be a carbohydrate, this C6H12O6 happens to be glucose or its isomer fructose. But isomers are a whole other thesis, all you need to know is it's a carbohydrate. Simple carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, if two connect it becomes a disaccharide, if more then two become attached it is called a polysaccharide, and when enough monosaccharides become attached it is called a starch. There are two types of starch, glycogen which is animal starch and cellulose which is plant starch. Starches take longer to break down, but obviously produce more energy.Proteins are another large molecule; they are made be repeating units of amino acids and have three purposes, as structural molecules, information carriers and most importantly enzymes. Amino acids attach forming peptide bonds. When two amino acids come together they become a dipeptide. It takes about 50 amino acids before the smallest types of proteins are formed and some proteins are upwards of 3,000 amino acids, so as you can tell proteins are huge. Enzymes created a favorable surface to facilitate a chemical reaction, and they are reusable. Proteins have 3 key structures, primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary structure is simple the order in which the amino acids are bonded. The secondary structure is how the protein will twist the kind of like if you twist a rubber band. The tertiary structure is how the protein tangles like if you were to give the rubber band slack and it bunches up. This bunching is the basis for enzymes this shape will allow different molecules to come together and perform a...

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