Substantial advancement has been built in recent years in the development of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes. The most recent developments have been around the incretin hormones. Glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonists (GLP-1) have demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide (Victoza) is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that has demonstrated advantages in lower hemoglobin A1c in this class of medications and assisting patients in reducing weight.
Liraglutide: Novel treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes is rapidly becoming the top health concerns in the United States and a major contributor to health care spending and disability. There are an estimated 22.3 million people in the United States diagnosed with diabetes, this represents 7% of our population (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2013, p. 1038) The American Diabetes Association conducted research in 2012 on the financial impact of diabetes. The authors evaluated 5 years from 2007 through 2012 and discovered the estimated cost of diabetes in 2012 was $245 billion dollars annually as compared to the estimated cost of $174 billion in 2007 (ADA, 2013, p. 1033). These figures are inclusive of care and lost productivity as well as adjusted to inflation. This represents a 41% increase in burden that patients with diabetes and healthcare consumers incur annually (ADA, 2013, p. 1033).
A rise in the amount of expenditures is expected with the increasing prevalence of the disease. The American Diabetes Association estimated that by the year 2050, we expect to see 1 in 3 Americans diagnosed with diabetes. This is a significant increase from the 7% of American currently diagnosed with diabetes (ADA, 2013, p. 1033). Tennessee has an estimated 504,000 Tennesseans living with diabetes, representing 7.80% of our population, slightly greater than that of the national average (ADA, 2013, table 11). As the prevalence of this disease increases, there will continue to be a financial burden on all healthcare consumers and a great demand on primary care providers to provide concise, evidence-based care to reduce complications and mortality (ADA, 2013, p. 1033).
Initial treatment of type 2 diabetes involves lifestyle modifications (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2014, p. S31). With obesity as the leading risk factor of type 2 diabetes, initial interventions are based around patient education, increasing physical activity, reducing weight, and increasing lean muscle mass. The American Diabetes Association standards of care published in 2014 recommends a moderate weight loss of 7% of total body weight and increasing activity to 150 minutes per week (ADA, 2014, p. S31). Modest loss of weight and increase of physical activity has a significant impact on the reduction of insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, and delay in the onset of type 2 diabetes. If lifestyle modifications and education interventions are not effective or if...