This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Lit Review

1518 words - 6 pages

April 27, 2010Criminal Justice ResearchLiterature ReviewDuring the late 1980's the United States Government declared a "War on Drugs," which imposed strict mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenders. These mandatory sentences were initially imposed for the purposes of thwarting drug traffickers and deterring drug use across America. Since the inception of mandatory drug minimums in 1987 and 1988, incarceration rates for drug offenders have sky rocketed, from 39 percent of the overall prison population in 1988 to 58 percent in 1992 (Tonry, 81-82). The surging prison population means more money is being spent to keep so many people incarcerated. With the great deal of money being spent and the growing number of drug incarcerations, it has been hypothesized that mandatory minimum drug sentences cannot be deemed a success because they cost the government too much money and are not responsible for the decline in drug use across America. This literature review will specifically look at five research articles in an attempt to affirm this hypothesis.The first article that will be discussed was written by Michael Tonry (1995) and examined the patterns of drug use amongst youths both before and after the War on Drugs. It was hypothesized that the War on Drugs was an unnecessary action taken by the Government, which was too harsh on American youth; namely African Americans. To show the trends in drug use amongst youths, samples from three different age groups were used: 12-17, 18-25, and 26 and older. The variables measured were alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and cigarettes; the data came in the form of self-reported drug use surveys within the last 30 days. Data was taken from 1975 up until 1991. The data for drug use amongst college students reported using drugs within the past 30 days (as well as across every other age group) shows a steady decrease in reported drug use for all of the illicit drugs previously mentioned. The data shows that in the matter of high school seniors, drug use peaked in 1979, but began to decline from that point onward. To illustrate this, 38% of seniors reported using marijuana in 1979, while in 1985 the number lowered to 27% (Tonry, 1995). This pattern continued for all drugs until the last year the data was available in 1991. If one were to look at the data solely from the commencement of the War on Drugs (1987-88) then one would misleadingly believe that the decrease in reported drug use was due to the War on Drugs, when in fact there had been declining reported use throughout the decade. This implies that there was a social motivation responsible for the decline in drug use and not in fact the War on Drugs, thus supporting the hypothesis. One flaw with this research was that the sample was compiled of merely 10,000 interviews. The small number of respondents used to cover all ages is too small to act as a sample for all of America.Moving onward is an article written by Lloyd D. Johnston, Ph.D, Patrick M. O'Malley, Ph.D....

Find Another Essay On Lit Review

Obesity: America did it Essay

2064 words - 9 pages occurrence of extreme obesity increased from 1.75% to 2.22%.When being categorized as Extreme obese, a Childs BMI at or above 120% of the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex (CDC). ****LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW**** ****LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW

The Use of Online Games within the Classroom

1374 words - 6 pages . And in fact, by the time the reader gets through the explanation of the game, it is clear what the authors are trying to accomplish in the study. In fact, at the end of their literature review, they provide both an objective for the study as well as the learning goals for the game. If we are to apply Creswell criteria here for a case study then in the final paragraph of the lit review, Parise and Crosina (2012) have met it in respect to the

Response Paper #3

1088 words - 5 pages Company and I have never met him before. The schema that comes to my mind when picturing a performance review is a serious meeting in the bosses medium-sized office. The boss will be sitting behind his desk, hands folded. The person receiving the performance review would be sitting in a chair in front of the bosses desk, a nervous look on their face. Basically everything you see in the movies. A well lit office space with a bookcase and random

Steel Manufacturing

1755 words - 7 pages containers are made by machining, and the size of the containers varies as stated earlier. The size ranges from 5 lit – 8 and 9 inch diameter, 7, 10 lit – 9 inch diameter, 11 lit - 8 and 9 inch diameter, 12 lit - 9 and 11 inch diameter, 15, 20, 25, 30 lit - 11 inch diameter, 57 lit - 14 inch diameter, 120 lit - 18 inch diameter. In addition to this, in a steel container manufacturing company there are numerous objectives which are to be put into

Personal Narrative- Improved Writing

1141 words - 5 pages register for American Lit.anyway. Well, the school year finally ended, and I wasn’t too happy for next year’s school year to begin. "I mean, American Lit. was going to be boring with all the reading, not to mention all the writing, too." But I didn’t consider the writing to be a big problem, because I had gotten to be pretty good at it by my junior year, or so I thought. To move on, the summer didn’t last long enough for me. I had tons of

Chief Justice Taney and Slavery

1922 words - 8 pages )) (December 14, 2002) [6] A Review of the Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Dred Scott Case (Louisville, Ky., Morton & Griswold, printers, 1857). (December 14,2002) [7] Ibid. [8] Ibid.

The Maid Who Kept Her Faith Even to the Stake, a comparison of the movie Joan of Arc

1421 words - 6 pages told her to keep quiet. She asked again, this time shouting. Jean de Metz, a squire in charge of watching over her, had the honor of holding the cross. However, according to Frohlick, it was actually Farther Martin Ladvenu who had that honor (Frohlick Review 2).         The flames were lit. Her loyal followers wept at the sight of their hero burning and dying. Everyone else cheered and clapped. They were convinced that Joan was not who

Kid Rock, Fuel, and Buckcherry

1450 words - 6 pages Kid Rock, Fuel, and Buckcherry For my first critical essay, I have chosen to review my attendance and experience at a rock concert. On Thursday January 18, at the Scottenstein Center in Columbus, I attended the concert of the controversial Kid Rock. Other performers at the show included rock bands Fuel and Buckcherry. Although there were only three bands that preformed that night, I found another source of entertainment within the

8 Majour Religions and Their Festivals

1661 words - 7 pages ED3110 Tutorial Review Religious FestivalsAccording to (n.d):A religion is …"A set of beliefs, values, and practices based on the teachings of a spiritual leader."A festival is …"An occasion for feasting or celebration, especially a day or time of religious significance that recurs at regular intervals."Therefore a religious festival is a festival having religious significance.Festivals are a time of celebration. This

Truth in the Tales: A Comparison of Two Historically Accurate and Influential Fiction Novels

978 words - 4 pages Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1925. Lacour, Elissa Schappell and Claudia Brodsky. The Paris Review. n.d. 15 April 2014 . Mcclain, Bradley. Yahoo Voices. 7 October 2009. 15 April 2014 . Micucci, Dana. "An Inspired Life: Toni Morrison." Chicago Tribune 31 May 1992

Behind the Veil

749 words - 3 pages congenial with that of the author will perceive” (eapoe Web). In other words, it takes an equally creative and intelligent writer or learned reader to understand the hidden meaning that is beyond the first more simpler theme. Works Cited Poe, Edgar. "Review of Twice-Told Tales." Graham’s Magazine. May 1842: 298-300. Web. 24 Jan. 2014. . Baym, Nina. The Norton Anthology of Am. Lit. Vol. B, 8th ed., 2012. pg. 369. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “The Minister's Black Veil. The Norton Anthology of Am. Lit. Vol. B, 8th ed., 2012. Ed. Baym, Nina. pg. 409-418.

Similar Essays

Lit Review

1047 words - 5 pages commit more crimes? Or maybe make them stray away from that life? Does this make other potential offenders hopeful in committing crimes, thinking they can study the TV shows so they can get away with it as well? Works Cited 1. Cole, Simon, and Rachel Dioso-Villa. “Investigating the 'CSI Effect' Effect: Media and Litigation Crisis in Criminal Law.” Stanford Law Review 61.6 (2009) 2. Houck, Max M. “CSI: Reality.” Scientific American 295.1 (2006): 84

Lit. Review

2737 words - 11 pages , Oosterlaan J, Duivenvoorden HJ, van Goudoever JB, Weisglas-Kuperus N. Development of preschool and academic skills in children born very preterm. The Journal of pediatrics. 2011;158(1):51-56. 6. Baron IS, Litman FR, Ahronovich MD, Baker R. Late preterm birth: a review of medical and neuropsychological childhood outcomes. Neuropsychology review. 2012;22(4):438-450. 7. Boyle JD, Boyle EM. Born just a few weeks early: does it matter? Archives of disease

Soc Psych Lit Review

1538 words - 7 pages victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review, 32, 365–383. Hazler, R.J. (1996). Breaking the cycle of violence: Interventions for bullying and victimiza- tion. Bristol, PA: Accelerated Development. Hazler, R.J., Carney, J.V., & Granger, D.A. (2006). Integrating biological measures into the study of bullying. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84, 298–307. (n.d.). Cyber bullying: Statistics and

Lit Review On Gaming's Affect On Aggression

1858 words - 7 pages be the way people are raised, hormones or social learning. Aggression is something everyone has at sometime so it is important to know why so that we can control our aggressive behavior.ReferencesPeiman, K. S, Robinson, B. W, (2010), Quarterly Review of Biology: Ecology and Evolution of resource -Related Heterospecific aggression, 85, p133 -158Eibl Eibesfeldt, I, (1977), Evolution of Destructive Aggression: Aggressive Behavior, 3, 2, p127