This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Lit. Review

2737 words - 11 pages

Preterm birth is defined as ‘any neonate whose birth occurs before the thirty seventh week of gestation’1 and represents approximately eight percent of all pregnancies1-4. It is eminent that these preterm infants are at risk of physical and neurological delay, with prolonged hospitalisation and an increased risk of long-term morbidity evident in prior literature3, 5-13. Innovative healthcare over the past thirty years has reduced mortality significantly14, with the survival rate of preterm infants having increased from twenty five percent in 1980 to seventy three percent in 200715. Despite, this drop in mortality long-term morbidity continues to remain within these surviving infants ...view middle of the document...

Gestational age is a continuum from conception to birth, with each week improving fetal neurological outcome4, 17, 18. In earlier years prematurity relied solely on birthweight for identification, defining prematurity as ‘any infant born below 2500g’1, 16. However, this resulted in misclassification of infants as heterogeneity in particular ethnicity caused preterm infants to be classified as full term when in fact they were preterm1. Upon this realisation, it was evident that birthweight was dependent of gestational age and thus the creation of birthweight percentile was formed. Birthweight percentile uses the relationship between gestational age and birthweight to classify infants into three percentile groups of neonatal risk1. Large for gestational age (LGA) which accounts for infants that exceed the 90th percentile, small for gestational age (SGA) which depicts infants born below the 10th percentile and appropriate for gestational age (AGA), between the 10th- 90th percentile which represents healthy birthweight for gestational age (Refer to figure 1). This classification system standardises for heterogeneous factors e.g. gender, ethnicity along with maternal factors to ensure individuality does not heavily influence neonatal risk1.
Figure 1: classification of newborns by birth weight and gestational age1
It is well established that SGA infants possess the highest risk of neonatal complications, with gestational age inversely related to increased mortality6, 16. It is further noted that normal fetal trajectory and brain growth is some degree neuroprotective19, 20. What is overlooked by literature is the implications of being LGA and whether infants born preterm but large birthweight possess inverse outcomes to SGA. If SGA undoubtedly leads to poor neural outcomes, and normal growth is deemed somewhat neuroprotective. Is there a difference between appropriate growth and LGA? And is this difference inversely proportional to the observations of SGA?
2 .0 Causes and Risk factors for Preterm Birth
In recent decades literature has validated several causes of preterm birth, with a minority of cases idiopathic. Prematurity is typically a result of maternal or fetal risks6, 21 (refer to figure 2). These risk factors increase the likelihood of early delivery and consequently increase the likelihood of long term physical and neurological impairment.
Figure 2: Causes and risk factors leading to preterm birth6, 21: 1 – a bacterial infection of fetal membrane and amniotic fluid
On occasion, preterm birth is induced by physicians as a result of recognised fetal problems such as In utero growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR is a complex condition with aetiology poorly understood. The foetus may be small as a result of multiple birth or due to placental insufficiency and inadequate fetal gas exchange4, 18, 22, 23. IUGR infants are frequently delivered early without actually achieving the weight bracket that would define them as SGA. For this reason, the...

Find Another Essay On Lit. Review

Pride and Prejudice Book Review - Ap Lit - Essay

1184 words - 5 pages Swiat Alexia Swiat Mrs. Jasnow AP Literature 06 September 2017 A Formal Petition for the Death of Mr. William Collins (and Lady De Bourgh) Picture this: Charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, and Nicholas Sparks all seated around a table, but instead of the knights of the round table they are the cupids of the love table. And who better to lead this fine group of love seekers and fantasy builders but the Queen herself, Jane Austen. Often regarded as one

Lit Review Over block starts and how to perfect them and techniques that will help - high high - research

1514 words - 7 pages Joy Sopitan Biomedical Innovations Swanson 8 September 2017 From Second Place to First When it comes to track and short sprints, block starts are essential. The difference between a first and second place finisher, could be a block start. Starting blocks are a device used in the sport of track and field by sprint athletes to hold their feet at the start of a race so they do not slip as they push out at the sound of the gun. It’s also used for

Obesity: America did it

2064 words - 9 pages occurrence of extreme obesity increased from 1.75% to 2.22%.When being categorized as Extreme obese, a Childs BMI at or above 120% of the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex (CDC). ****LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW**** ****LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW********LIT REVIEW

The Use of Online Games within the Classroom

1374 words - 6 pages . And in fact, by the time the reader gets through the explanation of the game, it is clear what the authors are trying to accomplish in the study. In fact, at the end of their literature review, they provide both an objective for the study as well as the learning goals for the game. If we are to apply Creswell criteria here for a case study then in the final paragraph of the lit review, Parise and Crosina (2012) have met it in respect to the

Response Paper #3

1088 words - 5 pages Company and I have never met him before. The schema that comes to my mind when picturing a performance review is a serious meeting in the bosses medium-sized office. The boss will be sitting behind his desk, hands folded. The person receiving the performance review would be sitting in a chair in front of the bosses desk, a nervous look on their face. Basically everything you see in the movies. A well lit office space with a bookcase and random

Steel Manufacturing

1755 words - 7 pages containers are made by machining, and the size of the containers varies as stated earlier. The size ranges from 5 lit – 8 and 9 inch diameter, 7, 10 lit – 9 inch diameter, 11 lit - 8 and 9 inch diameter, 12 lit - 9 and 11 inch diameter, 15, 20, 25, 30 lit - 11 inch diameter, 57 lit - 14 inch diameter, 120 lit - 18 inch diameter. In addition to this, in a steel container manufacturing company there are numerous objectives which are to be put into

Personal Narrative- Improved Writing

1141 words - 5 pages register for American Lit.anyway. Well, the school year finally ended, and I wasn’t too happy for next year’s school year to begin. "I mean, American Lit. was going to be boring with all the reading, not to mention all the writing, too." But I didn’t consider the writing to be a big problem, because I had gotten to be pretty good at it by my junior year, or so I thought. To move on, the summer didn’t last long enough for me. I had tons of

Chief Justice Taney and Slavery

1922 words - 8 pages )) (December 14, 2002) [6] A Review of the Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Dred Scott Case (Louisville, Ky., Morton & Griswold, printers, 1857). (December 14,2002) [7] Ibid. [8] Ibid.

The Maid Who Kept Her Faith Even to the Stake, a comparison of the movie Joan of Arc

1421 words - 6 pages told her to keep quiet. She asked again, this time shouting. Jean de Metz, a squire in charge of watching over her, had the honor of holding the cross. However, according to Frohlick, it was actually Farther Martin Ladvenu who had that honor (Frohlick Review 2).         The flames were lit. Her loyal followers wept at the sight of their hero burning and dying. Everyone else cheered and clapped. They were convinced that Joan was not who

Kid Rock, Fuel, and Buckcherry

1450 words - 6 pages Kid Rock, Fuel, and Buckcherry For my first critical essay, I have chosen to review my attendance and experience at a rock concert. On Thursday January 18, at the Scottenstein Center in Columbus, I attended the concert of the controversial Kid Rock. Other performers at the show included rock bands Fuel and Buckcherry. Although there were only three bands that preformed that night, I found another source of entertainment within the

8 Majour Religions and Their Festivals

1661 words - 7 pages ED3110 Tutorial Review Religious FestivalsAccording to (n.d):A religion is …"A set of beliefs, values, and practices based on the teachings of a spiritual leader."A festival is …"An occasion for feasting or celebration, especially a day or time of religious significance that recurs at regular intervals."Therefore a religious festival is a festival having religious significance.Festivals are a time of celebration. This

Similar Essays

Lit Review

1047 words - 5 pages commit more crimes? Or maybe make them stray away from that life? Does this make other potential offenders hopeful in committing crimes, thinking they can study the TV shows so they can get away with it as well? Works Cited 1. Cole, Simon, and Rachel Dioso-Villa. “Investigating the 'CSI Effect' Effect: Media and Litigation Crisis in Criminal Law.” Stanford Law Review 61.6 (2009) 2. Houck, Max M. “CSI: Reality.” Scientific American 295.1 (2006): 84

Lit Review

1518 words - 6 pages responsible for the decline in drug use across America. This literature review will specifically look at five research articles in an attempt to affirm this hypothesis.The first article that will be discussed was written by Michael Tonry (1995) and examined the patterns of drug use amongst youths both before and after the War on Drugs. It was hypothesized that the War on Drugs was an unnecessary action taken by the Government, which was too harsh on

Soc Psych Lit Review

1538 words - 7 pages victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review, 32, 365–383. Hazler, R.J. (1996). Breaking the cycle of violence: Interventions for bullying and victimiza- tion. Bristol, PA: Accelerated Development. Hazler, R.J., Carney, J.V., & Granger, D.A. (2006). Integrating biological measures into the study of bullying. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84, 298–307. (n.d.). Cyber bullying: Statistics and

Lit Review On Gaming's Affect On Aggression

1858 words - 7 pages be the way people are raised, hormones or social learning. Aggression is something everyone has at sometime so it is important to know why so that we can control our aggressive behavior.ReferencesPeiman, K. S, Robinson, B. W, (2010), Quarterly Review of Biology: Ecology and Evolution of resource -Related Heterospecific aggression, 85, p133 -158Eibl Eibesfeldt, I, (1977), Evolution of Destructive Aggression: Aggressive Behavior, 3, 2, p127