The federal government created a sequence of information and directives which will inspire a cognitive view of reading. This new information has changed the existing way educators taught reading and what resources they use to teach. This change comes from experimental psychologists; these psychologists believe that students will learn better if the tasks were broken down into smaller parts. Successful educators will do anything to guarantee the success of their students. In the textbook Literacy for the 21st Century: A Balanced Approach there are eight principles an educator can use to be successful in the classroom.
This principle covers the different ways an educator can understand how their students learn. There are teacher-centered learning and student-centered learning. Behaviorism is the only theory listed under the teacher-centered learning. This theory is teacher-centered since it emphasis is on the teacher’s role. Behaviorism concentrates on the visible characteristics of students’ behavior. B.F. Skinner created behaviorism; he suggests that students are motivated by reinforcements (reward). When the student is doing something negative it should have a specific consequence. This can have negative results like “resentment, limitation of transfer, may cause dependency on teachers, the undermining of intrinsic motivation, and viewing learning as a means to an end” (Brennen, n.d.). Skinner “explained that students learn to read by learning a series of discrete skills” (Tompkins, 2014) these skills must be learned through direct instruction. This can be used in the classroom by giving a token for a preferred behavior. Students can exchange them for prizes. When a student has a negative behavior the educator can deny that student access to an enjoyable activity that day. If they changed their behavior return the enjoyable activity at the end of the day.
There are many student-centered learning theories constructivism, sociolinguistics, and information processing. Constructivist theorists believe that students “learn through constructing their own knowledge base or concept of the world around them” (McLeod, 2012). Students learn by integrating new information to their world perceptions. This can be used in the classroom by allowing the students to write a report comparing their new knowledge to their world perception. Sociolinguistics believe that students need to use language to form their thoughts. Educators can us this in the classroom by providing the students with an opportunity to talk about what they are learning. Information processing theory “compares the mind to a computer” (Tracey & Morrow, 2006). This theory also says to incorporate reading and writing. This can be done in the classroom by using graphic organizers and reading logs.
Principle two covers how an educator support their students’ by using the cueing systems. The cueing systems are phonological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic. The...