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Literatura: Cosmivisio In Theater Dst 11 Class Essay

1051 words - 5 pages

TRABAJO PRACTICO – La fundamentación del poder político – El Contrato social
Actividad 1: Completa el siguiente cuadro
Thomas Hobbes
John Locke
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Nicolás Maquiavello
Mikail
Bakunin
País y años
Obra fundamental
Características del estado de naturaleza
Necesidad de hacer un Contrato Social
Características del Estado que surge del contrato
Otros aspectos
Actividad 2:
En su obra “Leviatán”, Hobbes enumera entre los derechos del soberano y los deberes de los súbditos los que se transcriben a continuación. Léelos y expresa una opinión personal acerca de los mismos:
a) Los súbditos no pueden cambiar de forma de gobierno porque no pueden cambiar los lazos de fidelidad establecidos con el soberano.
b) El poder soberano no puede ser evocado ya que ningún súbdito puede, por decisión individual, dejar de serlo.
c) Los súbditos no pueden acusar de injusticia al soberano, porque le han transferido el poder de decidir qué es lo justo.
d) Ningún soberano puede ser castigado por uno de sus súbditos haga lo que haga.
e) Al soberano le corresponde:
· decidir qué es lo necesario para conservar la paz interior
· juzgar qué doctrinas deben enseñarse y cuáles deben ser excluidas
· tener el poder de conferir honores
· tener el poder de recompensar y castigar a sus súbditos
Actividad 3:
a) Explicar el sentido del siguiente texto: ¿qué es lo que Locke quiere explicar?
b) ¿Por qué el hombre debe abandonar las ventajas del estado de naturaleza? Justifica.
John Locke: fines de la sociedad
Si en el estado de naturaleza el hombre es tan libre como hemos dicho; si es dueño absoluto de su propia persona y posesiones, igual que el más principal, y no es súbdito de nadie ¿por qué razón renuncia a su libertad? ¿Por qué entrega su imperio y se somete al dominio y control de otro poder? La respuesta obvia es que, aunque en el estado de naturaleza tiene ese derecho, aun así, su capacidad de disfrutarlo es muy incierta y se ve constantemente expuesta a la invasión de los otros. Pues, al ser todos tan reyes como él, todos por igual, y dado que la mayoría de ellos no son estrictos observadores de la equidad y la justicia, el disfrute de la propiedad de que dispone resulta ser bastante inseguro. Esto es lo que le hace desear abandonar esta condición, que, por muy libre que sea, está llena de temores y peligros continuos. Y no le falta razón cuando procura y anhela unirse en sociedad con otros que ya lo están o que tienen el propósito de estarlo, para la mutua preservación de sus vidas, libertades y haciendas, a todo lo cual me vengo refiriendo con el término general propiedad.
Por lo tanto, el fin supremo y principal de los hombres al unirse en repúblicas y someterse a un gobierno es la preservación de sus propiedades, algo que en el estado de naturaleza es muy difícil de conseguir.
Primero, porque falta una ley establecida, firme y conocida, recibida y aceptada por un consenso común, que sea el modelo de lo justo y lo injusto, y la medida común que decida en todas...

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