Social factors affecting pregnancy and childbirth
The purpose of this essay is to focus how locality can impact on pregnancy and childbirth.
Locality is one of the important social factors that can greatly influences the pregnancy and childbirth. Basically, locality is related to several social aspects such as the living environment, the accessibility to health facilities and cultural, which directly reflecting the life quality of an individual. According to Figure 1 [POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC REPORT 2010], the level of urbanisation of Malaysia is increased progressively in the last two decades. This progression indicates that transformation of rural to urban with the enhancement of the health services (hospital and clinic), education, network of transport, civic amenities and corporate sector.
[http://www.sociologyguide.com/industrial-and-urban-society/Urban-growth-and-urbanization.php] This essay will provide the insight of how the locality affect STUDY MOTHER’s pregnancy and childbirth who lives in Johor.
Figure 1: Level of urbanisation, Malaysia, 1980, 1991, 2000 and 2010
Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia
(TOPIC SENTENCE?) delayed giving birth > deaths (time)
Referring to the Figure 2 [POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC REPORT 2010], Johor is 71.9% urbanized shows that the residents who lives in these states are having higher accessibility to health facilities than the other states with relatively low level of urbanisation such as Sarawak (53.8%). For STUDY MOTHER who lives in Johor, the availability of health facilities that nearby her residential area provides her the ease to seek for the antenatal care. Furthermore, the transportation network which is relatively well-developed in Johor. Consequently, STUDY MOTHER was able to attend her antenatal appointments for approximately twice in a week easily. Comparing to the Sarawak, the transportation system is underdeveloped. This road system with small coverage and poor conditions may cause difficulty for the residents of Sarawak to access healthcare services. Other than the poor-developed transport network, there are many of them still living in the rural areas which are distant from the health facilities in the towns as the current road system could not able to build the connection to the major towns in Sarawak. A study shows that the poor attendance to antenatal visits is the risk factor of adverse pregnancy outcome regardless of maternal age. [http://jech.bmj.com.libproxy.ncl.ac.uk/content/52/8/501.full.pdf+html] The long distance between the residential areas and the health facilities is the main barrier for antenatal care assess. There might be hours of journey is required for them to antenatal healthcare centre frequently which leads to poor antenatal attendance. The antenatal care provides several medical screenings and check-ups to ensure the good health conditions of both pregnant women and the...