Literature Review Section
This section discusses the research related to reduce the wastage of blood products including blood bank inventory management, various policies and methodologies used for blood bank centers of United States as well as in other parts of the world. The concepts and tools applied to these studies are directly relevant and correlate with my research project. Therefore, I have decided to discuss on these articles for my Literature Review section.
I. Overview of a Redistribution System for Near-Outdate Red Blood Cells Units
In March 2006, Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine published an article regarding redistribution system of near-outdate RBCs Canada. Many remote hospitals in northern Alberta of Canada stored small on-stocks of RBC units for emergency issues. In Canada, the blood supplier does not accept any returned units into inventory due to concerns of storage and security of units. The discard rate of RBC units was quite high even the stock level was very small. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to transport near-outdate RBC units to a high-usage hospital site resulting in reducing overall discard rates. The chance of using near-outdate units to high usage hospital is more prior to expiry. This would decrease the discard rate within the entire community serviced by the blood supplier.
The proper blood transportation system was developed and validated in order to transfer the near-outdate units to these high-usage hospitals. The transport temperature of each box was monitored and recorded by thermometer. Standard operating procedures and forms were developed and distributed to each site. Staff members were provided with proper training and demonstration of performing the procedure with direct observation. The recipient site monitored and recorded data on final disposition, transfusion records such as any transfusion reactions, transportation failures were identified and solutions were implemented.
The study was conducted for two years from April 2003 to March 2005 with the goal of successful transportation of units by 80%. The number of units discarded decreased significantly in the first year of implementation of redistribution system and continued in the second year. The success rate of the transportation system was about 59%-78% among the sites. Changes were applied as problems were discovered. In overall, the redistribution system proved to be an effective method to reduce RBC unit discard rates.
II. Overview of Literature Review for Blood Wastage Reduction using Lean Sigma Methodology
In September 2010, American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) issued a peer-reviewed article in journal “Transfusion” regarding blood wastage reduction using Lean Sigma methodology. According to the report, red blood cell (RBC) wastage in hospitals ranges from 0% to 6.7%. The research conducted by College of American Pathologists (CAP) Q- Track studies showed an additional of 0.1% to 5.4% of...