Review of literature
Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior as studied in economics, psychology and neuropsychology. These reasons may include basic needs such as food or desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being or ideal. The motivation for behavior may also be attributed to less- apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. Motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior.
Gray and Starke defined motivation as “the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.”
Sayles defined motivation as “the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.”
R.M. Steers and L.W. Porter proposed that “how behavior gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organization while all this is going on”
Greenberg & Baron define motivation as, “The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior towards attaining some goal.”
Halepota defines motivation as “a person’s active participation and commitment to achieve the prescribed results.”
Steers proposed that “Never before and, some would argue, never since has so much progress been made in explicating the aetiology of work motivation”
Young suggested that “motivation can be defined in a variety of ways, depending on who you ask .Ask some one on the street, you may get a response like “its what drives us” or “its what make us do the things we do.” Therefore motivation is the force within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.”
According to Antomioni, “the amount of effort people are willing to put in their work depends on the degree to which they feel their motivational needs will be satisfied. On the other hand, individuals become de-motivated if they feel something in the organization prevents them from attaining good outcomes.”
Bassett-Jones &Lloyd presents that “the two views of human nature underlay early research into employee motivation. The first view focuses on Taylorism, which viewed people as basically lazy and work –shy”, and thus held that these set of employees can only be motivated by external stimulation. The second view was based on Hawthorn findings, which held the view that employees are motivated to work well for “its own sake” as well as for the social and monetary benefits this type of motivation was internally motivated.”
Pinder described work motivation as “the set of internal and external forces that initiate work-related behavior, and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration”.
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire to perform a...