This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Literature Review On Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

2272 words - 9 pages

Underwater wireless sensor networks are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks in which sound is mainly used as the communication medium. This paper reviews the main challenges caused by the underwater environment for the development of efficient under water sensor networking solutions and introduces several novel medium access control (MAC) protocols with power control to increase efficiency and save on energy.
I. Introduce
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) has received growing interest recently. It has many applications potentially in ocean graphic data collection, water quality monitoring, surveillance purposes and national security purposes. UWSN consist of a certain number of sensors that interact to send data to the onshore or surface sink node and perform collaborative tasks. Different applications have different reliability requirements. Thus data reliability is one of the most important requirements for data transmission. However, it would be a challenging task to assure reliable data delivery between the sensor nodes and the sink node, because the network performance is subject to the limitations and constraints of the complex underwater environment.
In this paper review, the main challenges of the UWSN MAC protocol design are introduced. Then the related works of existing reliable MAC protocols for UWSN are reviewed and summarized.
II. Challenges of MAC protocol for UWSN[1]
Compared to radio waves used in terrestrial sensor networks, which would have very high attenuation underwater, acoustic waves has better propagation characteristics in water, making it the preferred method for underwater communications. Hence acoustic channel is used as a link for communication in underwater sensor networks.
The propagation speed of sound in water is about 1500 m/s, which is 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of radio. The low propagation speed results in a high propagation delay (about 0.67ms/m) even for communication between two neighbors, while the delay in terrestrial is only 0.33ns/m. The high propagation delay increases the probability of collisions and highly degrades the throughput of the protocols.
In additional, sound propagation underwater is severely affected by transmission loss, noise, and reverberation, temporal and spatial variability of the channel. Transmission loss and noise are the principal factors determining the available bandwidth, range, and signal-to-noise ratio. The background noises bring difficult to the signal detection, which require wider range control of transmission power. In underwater environment, the networks suffer from high bit error rate and significant signal attenuation which depends on frequency, so the available bandwidth of acoustic channels is much narrower compared with that of RF channels, which is typically less than 15 KHz, resulting in low data rate for underwater communication, which can only provide bit rates in the order of tens or hundreds. This can create...

Find Another Essay On Literature Review on Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Transmission Power Control in Single-hop and Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

2291 words - 9 pages control has been widely studied in the literature, particularly in cellular networks and IEEE 802.11 networks. Our work is based on 802.15.4 physical layer, using the fact that all sensor nodes have adjustable transmission power levels that can be utilized to minimize sensor nodes’ power consumption and therefore prolong the lifespan of nodes. A review of the literature reveals several published work in cellular TPC algorithms in cellular

A Research on Wireless Sensor Netwroks

842 words - 4 pages CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Research Project Background and Motivation In current years, wireless sensor networks (WSN) has found applications a lot of situations, like surroundings observation and forecasting system, battleground monitoring, territory monitoring, weather conditions detection, natural animal protection, museums sanctuary and a little other human unreachable dangerous areas. Power assignment and management is critical in

The insecurities surrounding wireless networks with a brief background on how wireless networks work

2362 words - 9 pages Wireless Internet InsecuritiesIntroduction:Today's society is highly dependent upon computers and the Internet. People rely on the speed, ease of use and plethora of information that the Internet provides. With each changing year come new ideas that lead to ever-changing technologies. Wireless networks are the wave of the Internet future. Wireless networks utilize the information capacity of the Internet along with other capabilities such as

Network infrastructure focusing on Wireless Networks: Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and Mobile Phone networks

4377 words - 18 pages wireless networks. There are two types of WPA security, Enterprise and Personal. Enterprise WPA is meant for use with an IEEE 802.1X authentication server, which distributes different keys to each user. Personal WPA utilizes less scalable "pre-shared key" (PSK) mode, where every allowed computer is given the same passphrase. In PSK mode, security depends on the strength and secrecy of the passphrase. [9] The range of the WLAN signal may increase or

Literature Review on Advertising

3497 words - 14 pages CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Advertising is increasingly important in our modern life (Munusamy & Wong, 2007). It was because it can use to transmit a message to a great number of audiences easily (Al-Boloshi, 2010). Hence, many researchers have done their research about advertising. For example, there are many researchers test about the entertainment, informativeness, and credibility of mobile advertising (Haghirian

Literature Review on Employee Motivation

2725 words - 11 pages Chapter-2 Review of literature Motivation: Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior as studied in economics, psychology and neuropsychology. These reasons may include basic needs such as food or desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being or ideal. The motivation for behavior may also be attributed to less- apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. Motivation refers to the initiation, direction

A Literature Review on Post Occupancy Evaluation

2061 words - 9 pages Introduction: Through out this essay I will conduct a literature review on post occupancy evaluation, to give the reader and myself a better understanding what A Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is. I will also look into how it works for different people involved with the building and what benefits it may have for both the client and the users of the site. I will be looking for research to back up the use of this particular way of gathering

Outline and Literature Review on Management

721 words - 3 pages Literature Review OutlineMotivation of employees and creating harmony in the workplaceThree issues that considerably add to higher levels of employee motivation and performance, Nemerov (1993)Supervisors should enhance the motivational climate in the workplace, Atwood (2004)Employees Motivation and Theories and their Implication for EmployeeRetention within Organizations, Ramlall (2004)Management style of managers in Sierra Leone is based on

Literature Review on Zora Neale Hurston

1551 words - 7 pages Cabrera." African American Review 39, no. 3 (Fall 2005): 337-353. MLA International Bibliography, EBSCOhost. Jirousek, Lori. "Ethnics and Ethnographers: Zora Neale Hurston and Anzia Yezierska." Journal Of Modern Literature 29, no. 2 (Winter 2006): 19-32. MLA International Bibliography, EBSCOhost. Staple, Jennifer. "Zora Neale Hurston's Construction of Authenticity Through Ethnographic Innovation." Western Journal Of Black Studies 30, no. 1 (Spring2006 2006): 62-68. America: History & Life, EBSCOhost.

Literature Review on Organizational Change and Mergers

2364 words - 10 pages , 2004). It is one of the purposes of this project to examine the effects of the merger on the culture of both departments. However, despite previous research on the impact of mergers on organizational culture (Stahl & Voight, 2007; Weber & Camerer, 2003), no such studies exist in the context of a fire department merger. This review of current literature provides a detailed summary of research conducted on organizational change, culture, and mergers

Literature Review on Dreams: Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis

1814 words - 7 pages Literature Review on Dreams: Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis Freud initiated a therapy called psychoanalysis towards helping patients overcome mental problems, using an in depth analyze of a patient’s dream. Freudian psychoanalysis assumes that dreams fulfill a certain function. Freud considers dreams as a mental activity also experienced by our ancestors. The mind begins to disconnect from the external world during sleep but remains in an

Similar Essays

Wireless Sensor Networks Essay

1238 words - 5 pages A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Trust in networks may be defined as the degree of belief or confidence about the nodes on the past interactions and observations. So trust becomes a major issue for reliable communication in WSN under constraints. We propose a

Wireless Sensor Networks (Ws Ns) Essay

2677 words - 11 pages data and file transfer. From this point of view, the appearance of wireless networks such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) can be considered as the newest trend of Moore's Law to the smallness and ubiquity of computing devices. An overview on these two types of wireless networks (WSNs) and (MANET) and their use, will enable us to make comparison between them. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Wireless Sensor

Innovative Field In Computer Science Research Is Wireless Sensor Networks

1688 words - 7 pages Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have emerged as one of the most exciting and innovative fields in Computer Science research over the past few years. Processors with on-board sensors nearing the size of a dust are now being developed. WSNs are a trend of the last few years due to the advances made in wireless communication and information technologies along with electronics field. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is basically a wireless network

Trust Based Misbehavior Detection In Wireless Sensor Networks

1749 words - 7 pages Proposed System Fig.2. shows the overall architecture of the proposed work. In wireless sensor networks, the sensor nodes are densely deployed in the region. After deployment, the nodes are group together to form a clusters based on various criteria such as location and communication range. Cluster formation involves the establishment of cluster head, monitoring node and member nodes. In which the nodes are broadcast their energy and ID to base