Literature Review: Open Visitations in ICU
Studies have shown that open ICU visitation is an asset rather than a hindrance with respect to a patient’s wellbeing. Since the 1950s, visiting has changed from a strict nurse-controlled regime to a more flexible patient-centered approach (Taylor, 2008, p. 30). Family inclusion in patient care is evolving into a collaborative model between patient, family and healthcare providers. In response to this collaboration of patient and family-centered care (PFCC), this method has been encouraged in order to achieve the most beneficial outcomes for patients and their families. Open visitation in the ICU should be encouraged, not because of the pressure of growing social awareness, but because it can provide comprehensive responses to the needs of patients and their families. Many studies are being conducted on this subject garnering a great deal of support prompting the implementation of PFCC, which encourages open visitation in ICU.
The following is a brief summary of research studies concerning the current state of knowledge related to the promotion and benefits of open visitation in the ICU.
The main purpose of conducting a literature review is to obtain the most usable and reliable studies that pertain to the topic of the interest. High reliability and quality of evidence-based studies are provided by filtered sources. For my review I was able to find systematic reviews and individual articles. All of these reviews pertain to the dilemma of open visitation vs. restricted visitation in Intensive Care Units. With multiple views from different perspectives I was able to utilize the comparison and trials approaches. Also, to prepare for this project I was able to utilize unfiltered sources such as controlled trials and cohort studies.
The following summaries of five articles I chose will elaborate on my topic of my interest with different perspectives and views related to visitation in the ICU. Bishop et al (2013) conducted a study to see if family presence in an adult burn ICU during dressing changes and other procedures would improve communication, discharge readiness and overall satisfaction of patients and their families. Education of the staff and families was provided concerning acceptable behavior in the ICU setting and how to best meet the specific needs of the patient. Participation in daily dressing changes by the family members revealed a high level of satisfaction by both patients and loved ones. Families express decreased levels of stress due to knowledge gained on how to care for their loved ones at home following discharge. Likewise, patients felt more relaxed and tolerant of procedures with family present at the bedside.
Ciufo, Harder, and Holly’s (2011) systematic review revealed that there are many pros and cons that must be taken into consideration when deciding whether the ICU should be open to visitors at all times or whether restrictions should...