Literature Review: Prediction Of Henry’s Law Constant

3676 words - 15 pages

Introduction
An informal definition of Henry’s Law states that the solubility of a compound in a solvent is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the compound in the vapour phase, at low partial pressures. In a plot of concentration dissolved vs. partial pressure, the slope of the curve is the Henry’s Law Constant (HLC). The system is taken to be at equilibrium; that is the Gibbs free energy is at a global minimum so the macroscopic properties of the system are static. Unfortunately this definition is often too simplistic to be used in most practical applications for reasons which will be explained later.
The formal definition of the HLC is:
lim┬(x_i→0)⁡〖(f ̂_i^L)/x_i 〗=H_ij (1)
where f ̂_i^L is the liquid fugacity of the solute i, xi is the mole fraction, and Hij is the HLC of the solute, in the solvent j. It is important to mention that the HLC is specific a particular solute-solvent pair. A common mistake is to use the vapour-phase fugacity instead of the liquid-phase one, and simply to take the HLC as the ratio of the vapour-phase fugacity to liquid phase composition. This is incorrect as it assumes that the activity coefficients are equal to one, and the HLC is the reference fugacity (Carroll, 1991). The most common form of Henry’s Law used assumes that the vapour is at a pressure low enough such that it acts as an ideal gas. When this assumption is made both the activity coefficient, γ, and the fugacity coefficient, φ ̂, are equal to unity.
x_i H_ij=y_i P (2)
This form of Henry’s Law can be used up to a pressure of about 200 kPa and liquid concentrations of 1 mol% (Carroll, 1991). This shows that at low partial pressures a plot of mole fraction of a compound vs. partial pressure of the compound in the gaseous phase would be linear. When the vapour pressure of the solute increases, non-idealities occur and eq. 2 is no longer valid. However it is not necessary to confine the applicability of the Henry’s Law to such strict limits. With the inclusion of some extra terms the Henry’s law can be used over the entire range of compositions and pressures.
γ_i x_i H_ij exp[∫_(P_j^0)^P▒((v_i^(-∞))/RT)dP]=y_i φ ̂_i P (3)
The exponential term in eq. 3 is the Poynting correction factor and is only necessary at very high pressures, thus it can be excluded and the equation is still valid up to pressure of 10,000 kPa.
From these definitions we can see that compounds with a higher HLC are more volatile at a given temperature. Therefore the HLC is a measure of the relative affinity of a compound for the vapour phase and the liquid phase.
The expressions above are useful for binary systems however many industrial applications do not deal with pure binary systems. The presence of multiple components affects the value of the HLC. In these cases a more involved approach must be taken in determining the HLC. Carroll (1992) has written an introductory article on the various approaches and models used when dealing with other systems:...

Find Another Essay On Literature Review: Prediction of Henry’s Law Constant

Tax Policy: Review of Literature

2056 words - 8 pages , and after the Great Recession, a review of the literature associated with the fiscal policies instituted by the U.S. government as a result of the Great Recession will be studied. Finally, literature relative to the realized effects of the fiscal policies on the U.S. economy will be evaluated. The objective of this review is to evaluate the importance of the use of fiscal policies to influence long-term economic conditions following a recession

Literature Review of 5 Articles

1526 words - 6 pages Literature Review of 5 articles Based on secondary research of articles that our group had conducted, it led us to the problem statement that quality does not meet price. We accumulated five significant articles and utilized its information in order to generate the problem statement. What we noticed is that there were a lot of articles regarding quality issues related to Sony laptops. This made us question the high prices of Sony's

Literature Review of Muscular Distrophy

3262 words - 14 pages Background Before the project began a background literature review was done too understand the basis of the project, including any existing studies that overlap my research and studies that directly relate to my invertigation. Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a genetic disorder that weakens the muscles that help the body move. People with MD have incorrect or missing information in their genes, which prevents them from making the proteins vital for

Literature Review of the Mitigation Theory

2779 words - 12 pages Literature Review: The literature review is exceptionally significant in regard to understanding the concepts and theoretical ideas in regard to the securitisation of migration literature. With attention being centred on migration and security theory, especially in regard to recent literature, the basis for our argument will be established, and will continually be seeking to find any features that have been overlooked. The following chapters

Review of the Literature: Suicide Prevention of Aboriginal Youth

1852 words - 8 pages -aboriginal youth (Orkin et al., 2013, p. 1347). Therefore, the goal of this literature review is to explore the strategies available to prevent suicide among aboriginal youth in Canada. Clinical Question What prevention strategies are available to reduce suicide in aboriginal youth (ages 8-25) within Canada? A modified version of PICOT was used to form our clinical question, where Comparison was removed due to the fact that prevention strategies

Legalization of Marijuana: A Review of the Literature

2394 words - 10 pages and state level are serving time for marijuana offenses. (Armentano, 2007) In order to learn more about the usage of marijuana by adults, teens and elders, as well as learn how much information the public actually knows about the plant, four important questions must be considered. The following review on literature will provide statistics showing that most of the public is for the legalization of marijuana, discuss how many people regularly

Legalization of Marijuana: A Review of the Literature

2135 words - 9 pages believe on whether marijuana can have a negative or positive effect on a person’s health? 4. Does the public realize how many prisoners are in prison because of petty drug charges for possession of marijuana? As well as how much taxpayer’s money goes to be spent on those prisoners unnecessarily? The following review on literature will provide statistics showing that most of the public is for the legalization of marijuana, discuss how many people

Psychological Impact of Biculturalism: Literature Review of Theoretical Models

787 words - 4 pages A developing argument that individuals who live at the junction between two cultures and can lay claim to belonging to both cultures, either by being mixed race or born in one culture and raised by another, should be considered marginal people (Stonequist, 1935). However, Green (1947) stated that people who live within two cultures do not inevitably suffer. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and theory based on the

Literature Review of the Experiences of Obese Children

2857 words - 12 pages Objectives - To explore the social consequences of childhood obesity - To explore the emotional consequence of childhood obesity - To explore the consequences that a lack of physical activity can have on obese children - To explore the experiences of obese children and what social workers can do to help Chapter 2 – Methodology 2.1 Why A Literature Review? Literature reviews are often used to gather relevant research on any particular topic

The Meaning of Diversity Among the Professorate—A Literature Review

671 words - 3 pages The Meaning of Diversity Among the Professorate—A Literature Review Different aspects of diversity in higher education are an ongoing topic of debate. In order for us to address the issue of diversity, we need to understand what diversity means. This paper reviews a study used at the University of Florida to assess their faculty’s meaning of diversity. It also looked at the faculty’s openness to diversity and the effect diversity has had on

Literature Review: Areas of Concern and Chanlleges for Music Educators

1785 words - 8 pages Literature Review Although music educators often experience challenges in the inclusion setting, most agree that music is beneficial to all students, including students with disabilities (SWD). This literature review includes areas of concerns and challenges that music educators often experience in the inclusive setting as a result of (a) lack of training in special education, (b) lack of planning time, (c) scheduling issues and (c) lack of

Similar Essays

Constant Coefficients Linear Prediction For Lossless Compression Of Ultraspectral Sounder Data Using A Graphics Processing Unit

594 words - 2 pages considerable increase in computation speed in applications that are data parallel. Data parallel computation on image data executes the same program on many image pixels on parallel. We have implemented a spectral image data compression method called Linear Prediction with Constant Coefficients (LP-CC) using Nvidia's CUDA parallel computing architecture. LP-CC compression method represents current the state-of-the-art in lossless compression of

Law Of Constant Composition Lab: Magnesium And Oxygen

1445 words - 6 pages Purpose: To determine the percent magnesium by mass in magnesium oxide and to observe if the percentage composition is constant by comparing class results.Hypothesis/Prediction: The percent composition by mass of magnesium in magnesium oxide will not change significantly with each group that conducted the experiment. The composition of each substance should stay the same and any differences must be due to some error.Materials:Magnesium

Review Of Qualitative Literature

1777 words - 7 pages Review of Qualitative Literature Qualitative methods use a different approach to scholarly research than quantitative methods. According to Creswell (2014), although similar in processes, qualitative methods rely on text and image data, have unique steps in data analysis, and draw on diverse designs in the qualitative study. There is now an increased publication of articles using qualitative methods as it became more acceptable, especially in

Review Of Related Literature

1897 words - 8 pages author’s intent in this review is to overview varying literature regarding the underlying intent of software in technology, the history behind the proprietary and open source debate, the efficiency and security of proprietary and open sourced applications, and current trends of and the future of software. Purpose of software in technology The rationale of the creation of software is a major topic of debate. On the Open Source Software (OSS) side