Lithium-ion batteries have been replacing older styles of batteries over the past years, and as environmentalist push away from oil these batteries will be further developed. In this paper I will be discussing what the major qualities that are looked for in lithium-ion batteries and how the qualities are obtained. Then, we’ll move on to talk about the problems that arrive with these batteries, and how they can be semi-controlled and monitored. Finally, we will discuss where the lithium-ion battery technology is going. The improvements being made in the field of lithium-ion batteries will lead to more stable, higher capacity holding, and longer living batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries emerged in 1990.
Due to the growing popularity of lithium-ion batteries, they are being used in anything from small cell phones to large hybrid or full electric vehicles.
Figure from (Sulaiman)
The lithium-ion batteries being made “offer energy densities two to three times and power densities five to six times higher than other conventional batteries” (Zhang). Therefore like most batteries you want to have the largest capacity you can get with the smallest cell you can build, and that’s why the move to lithium-ion batteries started. These batteries already have a “high energy density, high galvanic potential, a low self-discharge rate, they are low in weight, and have little memory effect” (Lotfi). The memory effect is a “tendency where the cells lose capacity because of improper charging or discharging, which degrades cell life and run times” (Dimitrijevic). For the purpose of electric vehicles lithium-ion cells must have the ability to discharge, to create enough power to accelerate onto a highway. This ability to quickly discharge is reached for a small loss in capacity. When using LiCoO2, “the smaller the particle size of the LiCoO2 cathode material, show a higher discharge capacity” (Sulaiman). They then synthesized ultra fine particles by self propagating combustion. This step towards creating high discharging capabilities is a step towards creating safer fully electric vehicles. The next necessary item on the list to make lithium-ion batteries more attractive is they are lighter than older conventional batteries. This is occurs as the technology increases, also another way to create a cheaper, smaller cell would be to minimize the outer casing or by lightening up what the anode, cathode and separators are made of. However, some of this corner cutting can lead to problems which will be discussed later on in this paper. Next is to have a battery that has a longer battery life which could survive longer cycles. This is fixed by using a battery management system or BMS. What the BMS is, is a computer type device that manages a bank of cells or batteries, which makes for a safer, more reliable and efficient system. The BMS will “need to estimate the state of the charge, the state of the batteries health, and to measure and monitor cell...