This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Liver Essay

2634 words - 11 pages

4-Nitrophenol (PNP) is used to manufacture drugs, fungicides and parathion insecticides, also it is one of four nitrophenols derivatives from DEP and consider as EDCs. It is known that PNP has various harmful physiological effects. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chronic PNP exposure on liver health condition, 28 days-old male Japanese quail where orally administered PNP (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1mg/kg b.w) for 2.5 months where samples collected every 15 days and histopathology (H&E and PAS), PCNA, apoptosis detection and serum AST level were further used to study the impacts of PNP. Basal mRNA level of cytochrom P450 enzymes (CYP 1A4, 1A5, 1B1), Ho-1, GST and AH receptor from liver in vivo and in vitro from liver hepatocyte 24 h incubation with PNP at different concentration measured using RT-PCR method. Result showed that chronic P-nitrophenol exposure caused interruption in liver weight accompanied with histopathological signs i.e. lymphocytic aggregation, congestion of blood vessels, hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis at different degree and this reflected on the plasma hepatic enzymes concentrations (AST) where all over increase in AST specially at 2.5 months where mid dose reported 503.0 U/l and high dose 350.0 U/l versus to 204 U/l in control group also significant increase in PCNA (P<0.01), glycogen accumulation (P<0.05) and apoptotic cell (P<0.01) were reported. In vivo, after 2 months of PNP administration bird exhibit overexpression in CYP1A4(˜1.5-2fold higher), 1B1 enzyme(˜5-10 fold higher), AhR (˜ 2-4 fold higher)and HO-1 than other enzymes, GST and 1A5, which showed no change compared with value for control group but with continuous chronic PNP administration over all down-regulation in all liver tested genes reported. In vitro experiment showed significant overexpression of CYP1A4, HO-1, downregulation of CYP1A5, no change in CYP1B1 and finally Ah receptor not detected. From these result we can conclude that PNP has toxic effect on liver cell function and increase oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro which may be affect on the other organ systems.
Keywords: Cytochrom P450 enzymes, quail, PNP, oxidative stress, hepatocyte, Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), Aryl HR.
Air pollution considers as a grave problem all over the world (Li et al., 2006), and DEPs contributing to this situation, Exposure to DEP is an environmental and occupational health concern. 4-nitrophenol (PNP), C6H5NO3, and the molecular weight is 139.11 g/mol, is one of four nitrophenols derivatives from DEP(Noya et al., 2008), also a degeneration product of the organophosphorus insecticides i.e parathion (Kim et al., 2006) where a major detoxification pathway of methyl parathion is enzymatic hydrolysis of the toxic metabolite, methyl paraoxon, to dimethyl phosphate and 4-nitrophenol (Benke and Murphy 1975). 4-Nitrophenol is used to manufacture some drugs (e.g., acetaminophen), fungicides, insecticides (methyl and ethyl parathion),...

Find Another Essay On liver

How Liver Cancer Affects The Liver

1535 words - 6 pages This report will discuss how liver cancer affects the liver. I will discuss the how liver cancer affects the normal operation of the liver, what causes liver cancer, how this cancer can be detected and how this cancer can be treated. I will conclude with a discussion of how common liver cancer is. The liver is a vital organ which has multiple functions to keep the body operating normally. The liver stores vitamins, sugar and iron to help give

Understanding Liver Function Tests Essay

920 words - 4 pages The liver is a large vital organ that performs many critical functions to maintain health and sustain life. It is located at the right upper portion of the abdomen just below the right side of the chest, extending into the middle postion of the abdomen. To understand what liver function tests are and why they are taken, it is first necessary to know more about liver function. Important Functions of the Liver The liver is a complex organ that

It's Your Liver

1084 words - 5 pages The liver is an organ in the body that people often take for granted. Being the second largest organ in the body, it has tasks like filtering waste products in the blood, storing fat soluble vitamins and starts the clotting and complement systems, just to name a few (Pearson Pg. 682-683). People don't always take care of their liver and with all the drugs, alcohol, dietary supplements, food, and chemicals in todays society, the liver is the

Alcohol Liver Disease

1274 words - 6 pages In addition to the disruption of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, ethanol alters lipid droplet (LD, the storage form of TG) metabolism in hepatocytes and very low-density lipoprotein secretion from the liver. This effect, together with the inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, contributes to the pathogenesis of fatty liver (hepatosteatosis), the initial stage of ALD. Another major pathway of ethanol metabolism that involves

Liver Disease - Hepatitis C

766 words - 3 pages Liver DiseaseI chose liver disease as my subject, specifically Hepatitis C ("HCV"), because my father was diagnosed with HCV in 1999. He went on Interferon every other day for six months in 2000 and it didn't work. He went on it again every day for 18 months starting in 2001 and it still did not work. He had carried this disease for 30+ years without knowing he had it. He found out by going to a Podiatrist for a heal spur. The Doctor wanted to

Alcohol Liver Disease

720 words - 3 pages After absorption into the blood-stream, alcohol is distributed quickly throughout the body and metabolized by most tissues. However, the major site of alcohol metabolism is liver. The liver can metabolize only a certain amount of alcohol per hour, regardless of the amount that has been consumed. Ethanol metabolism occurs through oxidative (major) and non-oxidative (minor) routes. During the oxidative route ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde, a

Alcohol's Effects on the Liver

719 words - 3 pages Americans love libations and mind-altering substances and the loquacious and amiable effects the abuse of which has on them. In order to survive these "high times" human livers must process the dangerous chemicals in drugs and alcohol. The health of a person, especially that person's liver, strongly correlates to the amount drugs or alcohol that person consumes. Alcohol, specifically, is one of the most dangerous substances to expose the liver

The Cause and Effects of Liver Failure

756 words - 3 pages The liver is the largest organ in the body. The liver is a vital organ. Without it we would not be able to live. Apart from the brain, it is the most complex organ in the body.It has a wide range of functions and acts very much like a factory. One of its most amazing features is its regenerative power. Some 9/10ths of the liver can be cut away and providing the remaining 1/10th is healthy, the liver will grow back to its original size The liver

Dietary Supplements Can Damage the Liver

945 words - 4 pages the Liver Studies show that certain dietary supplements, especially vitamins, minerals and antioxidants have many health benefits, which includes prevention of cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. However, experts warn that some herbal and dietary supplements have side effects, especially when taken in large doses or if they are taken for long periods. Research shows that almost 20% of all liver injuries recorded from 2003-2011 are associated

Degradation of the Liver by Matrix Metalloproteinases

1111 words - 5 pages Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the enzymes responsible for matrix degradation in the liver [38]. These are calcium-dependent enzymes that specifically degrade collagens and noncollagenous substrates. MMPs are divided into 5 categories according to their substrate [39]: 1) interstitial collagenases (MMP-1, -8, -13), 2) gelatinases (MMP-2,-9, and fibroblast activation protein), 3) stromelysins (MMP-3, -7, -10, -11), 4) membrane type (MMP

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

946 words - 4 pages Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or simply NAFLD, describes a condition where excess fat accumulates in the liver of people who consume little or no alcohol at all. Although some amount of fat may accumulate in the liver of a normal individual, having fat that takes up to five to ten percent of your liver weight can cause fatty liver disease, which may lead to serious health problems. What is Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease ? The liver is

Similar Essays

The Liver Essay

893 words - 4 pages The Liver:Facts, Functions, and Structure of The liver is the largest organ in the entire, normal human body. It weighs anywhere from 2.5 to 3.3 pounds. With its large size it is also a very resilient organ. Up to 3/4 of its cells can be removed before is ceases to function. It is red-brown organ roughly shaped like a cone. The liver is located in the upper right abdominal cavity immediately beneath the diaphragm. Without the liver, we

Liver Transplantation Essay

1861 words - 7 pages The liver is the largest internal organ in our body, weighing about 3 pounds. It is reddish-brown and rubbery to the touch (WebMD, n.d.). Our liver is one of the most important organs in our bodies. It exists to process nutrients from the food we eat, make proteins, make bile and remove toxins. These processes can get interfered due to liver failure, when the liver is damaged to an extent that it won’t function normally for months or years. The

The Liver Essay

1044 words - 5 pages he liver is a crucial organ in the body of vertebrates and mammals. It has a wide variety of functions from protein synthesis from blood, to production of biochemical’s necessary for digestion, and to detoxification of blood. The liver is essential for survival and there is no way to compensate for the absence of liver function. The liver is a multiple lobed organ that is in the front part of the abdominal cavity. It is positioned directly

Liver Transplantation Essay

2064 words - 9 pages hepatic artery is diminutive in size, the replaced right hepatic artery can be left long and used for arterial inflow for the donor liver. The common bile and common hepatic ducts are dissected, with the longest possible length, while avoiding injury to the bile duct’s blood supply. The common hepatic duct is then ligated as close to the liver as possible. The portal vein is freed from the edge of the duodenum up to its bifurcation, its branching