Living In The Environment Principles, Connections, And Solutions : Miller 12th Edition Chapter 2 Outline

1202 words - 5 pages

Chapter 2: Environmental History: An Overview2-1 Cultural Changes and the EnvironmentMain Changes- Agricultural Revolution Industrial Revolution Information and Globalization RevolutionDamage- More energy and power to change and alter plant to meet our basic needs Allowed expansion of human population (at expense of other populations), mostly because of increased food supplies and longer life spans. Increased environmental impact because of resource use, pollution, and environmental degradation.Hunter-gatherers had little impact on environment because Small populations Low technology Low basic needs (little demand on environment to provide)Agricultural Recolution-10,000- 12,000 years agoEarly ways of agriculture Slash-and-burn cultivation- Cutting down trees and other vegetation in a patch of forest, leaving the cut vegetation on the ground to dry, and then burning it. The ashes that are left add nutrients to the nutrient-poor soils found in most tropical forest areas. Plots must be abandoned after a few years (typically 2-5 years) Shifting cultivation- Clearing a plot of ground in a forest, especially in tropical areas, and planting crops on it for a few years (typically 2-5 years) until the soil is depleted of nutrients or the plot has been invaded by a dense growth of vegetation from the surrounding forest. Takes 10- 30 years to return to normal.Industrial Revolution- mid-1700s spread to the US in the 1800sShift from renewable wood resource and flowing water to dependence on machines running on nonrenewable fossil fuels (first coal, later oil and nature gas)Reduced need for farmersInformation and Globalization Revolution- nowNew technologies have increased the rapid exchange of information on a global scale.Many positive sides to Information and Globalization Revolution Helps us understand the Earth better. Allows us to respond to the environmental problems more effectively and rapidly. Develop computer models to make maps of Earth's environmental systems. Environmental researchers and activists to exchange data as its discovered.Negative side Overload of information Confusion, distraction and sense of hopelessness2-2 Environmental History of US: Tribal and Frontier ErasEnvironmental History in US can be divided up into four eras: tribal, frontier, conservation, and environmental.Tribal Era- 10,000 years before Europeans began arriving.Low technology and low environmental impact.Frontier Era- 1607-1890Frontier environmental worldview- Viewing undeveloped land as a hostile wilderness to be conquered (cleared, planted) and exploited for its resources as quickly as possible2-3 Environmental History of US: Early Conservation Era- 1832- 1870 Henry David Thoreau- lived in cabin near Walden Pond near Concord, Mass. For 2 years and wrote Life in the Woods George Perkins Marsh- Congressmen for Vermont published Man and...

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