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Load Balanced Routing With Constant Stretch For Wireless Sensor Network With Holes

1097 words - 5 pages

Because of its simplicity and scalability, geographic routing is a popular approach in wireless sensor networks, which
can achieve a near-optimal routing path in the networks without of holes. With the occurrence of holes, however, geographic
routing faces the problems of hole diffusion and routing path enlargement. Several recent proposals attempt to fix these issues by deploying a special, forbidding area around the hole, which helps to improve the congestion on the hole boundary but still causes significant load unbalancing due to static detour routes bypassing this fixed forbidding area. Also, a significant
enlargement on routing path is still possible due to the possibly significant difference between this forbidding area and the hole. Another recent approach can achieve a low route stretch (constant bounded) but still, the load unbalancing due to the holes is a
concern. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach which is the first to target and solve both these two problems of hole
diffusion and path enlargement. Our theoretical analysis proves the constant stretch property and our simulation experiments
show that our scheme strongly outperforms the existing schemes in several performance factors, including route stretch, efficient
use of energy and load balancing.

Geographic routing [1][2] which exploits the local geographical
information at the GPS-equipped sensors is widely
accepted for its simplicity and efficiency. Geographic routing
algorithms typically assume: a) that each network node knows
its own and its neighbors’ positions and b) that the source of
a message knows the destination’s position. Such a routing
algorithm typically starts with a greedy strategy where each
node chooses the next hop to be the neighbor node closest
to the destination. Geographic routing works well in networks
without holes 1, however with the occurrence of the holes, it
faces the following problems:
• Hole diffusion ( [3], [4]): By using the popular face
routing mechanism, a lot of packets can be sent along the
boundary of a big hole, imposing a heavy traffic on the
nodes on the hole boundary; this will exhaust the energy
of these boundary nodes quickly and therefore, enlarge
the hole in consequence.
• Routing path enlargement: Geographic routing could
achieve a near-optimal path length in a dense network
without holes but the path length can grow as much as
(c2) when the holes present, where c is the optimal path
length [5].
In order to solve the problem of hole diffusion, several
proposals have been proposed [3][4][6] wherein a common
approach is to determine some special forbidding area which
is a minimum cover of the hole that also has a certain selected
shape, e.g. a circle [4], an hexagon [6] or an ellipse [3].
Whenever a data packet encounters the boundary of this
forbidding area it is pushed back to find another route to
the destination. Although this approach can decrease traffic
on the hole boundary, it possibly creates traffic congestion...

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