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Location And Description Of The Algonkian Indians

1220 words - 5 pages

Location and Description of the Algonkian Indians

- Algonkian lived in Quebec and Ontario; starting from the Ottawa valley, beneath Hudson Bay and above lower Ontario
- the areas in which they lived in were dense woodlands with trees, such as, birch and evergreen; and snow covered the land most of the year.

Adaptation to the physical Environment


- Algonkian homes were called Wigwam, there frames were built out of saplings of tall, young tree trunks which were tied together with narrow strips of bark or root fibers, to form a dome shape
- the frame was covered with woven mats or barks, then was firmly tied to the frames
- light birch bark were used as covers in the summer and heavy elm or walnut bark was used in the winter
Changing Climate
- tribes lived in one designated location, but it was common for them to move within that region, depending on the season
- during the spring and summer they would shift their homes closer to the water so that they may be able to fish with more ease
- while in the autumn and winter they would move near the forest so they would be able to hunt for animals
- on land Algonkians generally walked, but they traveled by canoes in the water
- they had two types of canoes - the dugout and birch bark, which were made from hollowing whole trees
- clothing simple yet sturdy
- during summer men wore only a deerskin loincloth
- women wore an apron or a long wraparound skirt made form the same material
- when weather became colder the Algonkian added skin shirts, fur robes, leggings and feather clocks
- they also greased the bodies to ward off insects in the summer and keep warm in winter

Mode of Substance

- Algonkians lived too far north and outside the rice ring for agriculture
- they were mainly semi-nomadie bands of hunter -gathers
- some southern bands began growing crops in 17th century
- they hunted animals using the nich of projectile points made from flints
- they were best identified for their skills as hunters who made the best traps and snares, the traps and snares come in many different forms and changed with each season
- among the animals hunted were deers, moose, beavers, cariboues, elks and bears.
- during the summer groups would gather to fish and socialize
- when winter came they separated into small hunting camps of extended families
- due to the harsh climate in which they lived, starvation was quiet common for the Algonkian people and they were known to kill their sick, crippled or badly wounded

Political and Social Organization

Political structure

- Algonkian did not have highly developed centered political system
- each Algonian tribe was a nation and had its own leaders
- the tribe's leaders were called Sachem.
- the Sachem title was not elected but inherited
- most Sachems were men, but occasionally a Squaw Sachem ruled over the tribe
- several other men called Sagomores and Sachem made up the tribal council

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