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Looooz Essay

1227 words - 5 pages

Explain the distribution of Hydrometeorological hazards (15)A Hydrometeorological hazard is a hazard caused by change in the weather which leads to extreme conditions. This can be because of extreme heat (for example wildfires or drought), heavy rainfall (flooding or a mudslide) or a combination of factors such as strong winds of certain direction and with the correct temperature e.g. a tornado or cyclone.It is said that due to climate change these hazards are becoming more frequent and unpredictable, mainly due to the unpredictable, higher than normal temperature rises having effects on the environment.Drought is the most widespread hazards, which regularly claims the most lives. Those most affected by drought are those of a low economic status and are living in lesser economically developed countries, although areas which are densely populated are also largely effected by drought as it puts a strain on infrastructure. Lesser economically developed countries are most affected by drought because of their tendency to be located below the equator where land is more arid and there is less rainfall, although the pattern of drought is quite dispersed, with 70% of the world's population and agricultural value being effected by drought in some way. Many Lesser economically developed country do not have the facilities in place to store water such as water reservoirs, and so many of the people are forced to drink unclean water which leads to the spread of disease which also is something a lesser developed country does not have the facilities to deal with on a large scale and so it needs to rely on aid. For example this occurred in the 2011 east Africa drought, which put a large strain on the south of Somalia, with 9.5 million people being affected and reports of up to 500,000 casualties. It was especially devastating the people of Somalia as East Africa depends entirely on the agricultural sector, meaning their entire livelihood was destroyed along with them not having enough to eat. This surely set back the economies of the countries as their only source of income (e.g. crops and livestock) was ravaged, meaning the development of these countries was also set back. This particular drought was caused by the occurrence of a weather phenomenon known as La Nina which caused the drought due to its disruption of the walker cycle.Although El Nina caused this particular drought, El Nina only occurs once every 4 years or so. Droughts in general are caused by something known as the inter tropical convergence zone, which is a phenomenon that brings either rain or high pressure zones which block rainfall.Flooding is caused by heavy rainfall (which can lead to flash floods), an increase in sea level due to climate change, a series of high depressions (which can be brought about by El Nino/La Nina) or the movement of the intra tropical convergence zone. Flooding can also be cause by the melting of ice caps on mountains as the melted ice will run down and flood any...

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