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Lords Resistance Army And Conflict And Peace Building In Uganda

2555 words - 10 pages

For more than 25 years, an army of mostly child soldiers, some barely able to hold guns, led by a man named Joseph Kony have been massacring and kidnapping civilians throughout Uganda. This conflict has since spread out of Uganda to the north and west into other regions such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and areas of southern Sudan. The conflict also affects other key areas of central Africa as Kony and his Lord's Resistance Army has killed thousands and displacing millions of Africa natives. Despite several attempts at meetings in addition to arrest warrants from the International Criminal Court against Kony and his troops, Kony has refused to cooperate and this war still rages on as one of the longest-running conflicts in African history.
Conflict background and causes
The conflicts in Uganda historically a power struggle between two primary actors such as northern tribes versus south, Acholi versus Langi, and Bantu-speakers versus Niolitic are specifically triggered by the central themes of control. During the late 1800's and early to mid 1900's, also known as the Colonial period, Uganda was divided between southern, Bantu-speaking groups and northern Nilotic-speaking groups. While the Bantu speakers were favored politically and economically, the Niolitic had military dominance. This remained the case throughout the presidencies of Milton Obote and Idi Amin. (S1) General elections were held in 1980 following the overthrow of Idi Amin in which Milton Obote won. Obote came back into power in his second presidency term until 1985. The general elections are believed to have been rigged to allow Obote to regain power. The army formation, traditionally dominated by northern Ugandans led to a polarization between the north and south, and tensions began to arise between the Ugandan Peoples Congress (UPC) led by Obote in the north and the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), led by Yoweri Museveni. Museveni was a former member of the UPC, in the south.
In 1985, a northern Acholi General Tito Okello overthrew Milton Obote, hen second-term president and ethnic Langi,in a fight between Acholi and Langi soldiers in Kampala, central Uganda. (S3 371) This again characterizes the power struggle and conflict between two opposite actors once again over power. After the fight, the Acholi retreated and regrouped in the north. After taking Kampala, Ugandans and Acholi's established Tito Okello as the new President. Okello then was pressured by the people into entering negotiations with southern rebel groups, namely the National Resistance Army (NRA) led by UPM leader Yoweri Museveni. After a failed cease-fire and attempt to establish control over his troops, Milton Obote was overthrown in early 1986 by Yoweri Museveni. (S3 371) Museveni's army, the National Resistance Army (NRA) immediately began conducting revenge attacks and massacres against the Acholi's, causing many to flee to Sudan. (S1 142) The attacks from Museveni, a southern Ugandan, in...

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