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Low Speed Behaviour Of Delta Wings

5693 words - 23 pages

1
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
A delta wing is a wing whose shape when viewed from above looks like a triangle, often
with its tip cut off. It sweeps sharply back from the fuselage with the angle between the
leading edge (the front) of the wing often high as 60 degrees and the angle between the
fuselage and the trailing edge of the wing around 90 degrees.
Often delta wing aircrafts lack horizontal stabilizers. Despite the fact that paper
airplanes have delta wings and appear to fly quite well when launched from a height, delta
wings actually perform poorly at low speeds and often are unstable. Delta wing has a swept
leading edge and straight trailing edge. It offers the advantages of a swept wing, with good
structural efficiency. It is named for its similarity in shape to the Greek uppercase letter delta
(∆). Almost all delta wings fall into the category of low aspect ratio wings.
1.2 History and development
Sometimes, a technology persists despite its problems and eventually is rescued by
other technologies. The delta wing story provides an excellent examples. Delta wings use
pioneered by Alexander Lippisch prior to WWII in Germany, but none of his designs
entered service. After the war delta became the favored design for high speed use, and was
used almost to exclusion of other plan forms by Convair.
Between 1529 and 1556 Concord Haas wrote a book in which he described rocket
technology, involving the combination of fireworks and weapons technologies. This
manuscript was rediscovered in 1961, in the Sibiu public records. His work dealt with the
theory of motion of multi stage stabilizers.
As the manuscript was discovered only in 1961 until recently the conception of such
stabilizers and their name had been suggested in the 17 th century by the polish-Lithuanian
military engineer Kazimierz Siemienowicz.

2
2. DELTA WING
Figure 1
CONCORDE
2.1 Characteristics
The first practical uses of delta wing came in the form of so called "tailless delta", i.e. without the horizontal plane. In fact the designs were at the same time also the first
flying wings. It could be argued if 1924 Cheranovsky designs, having one-of-a-kind
parabolic plan form, fit the category of delta wings. Nevertheless, a triangular wing was
pioneered especially by Alexander Lippisch in Germany. He was first to fly delta aircraft in
1931, followed by four improved designs. None of these was easy in handling at slow
speeds, and none saw widespread service. During the war Lippisch studied a number of
ramjet powered delta wing interceptor aircraft, one progressing as far as a glider prototype.
After the warm Lippisch was taken to the United States of America, where he
worked at the convair company in California. Some high ranking convair engineers became
quite interested in his interceptor designs, and they started work on a larger version known
the Convair XF-92.
The prototype although never put into production was extensively flight tested, and
its design generated a lot of...

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