Lung Cancer and Bone Metastasis
According to the Canadian Cancer Society (2014h), there are two main types of lung cancer: Non-small cell lung cancer, the most common and grows more slowly; and small cell lung cancer, grows quickly and often spreads to distant parts of the body.
The progression of lung cancer could be spreading from the lung to other parts of body, where they can grow into new tumours, which called metastasis such as bone metastasis that can be occur in any bone such as the spine, pelvis, ribs, upper legs and arms bones, and skull (Canadian Cancer Society, 2014a; Canadian Cancer Society, 2014b).
The prognosis of lung cancer affected by different factors such as stage and characteristics of the cancer, the chosen treatment, and response to the treatment (Canadian Cancer Society, 2014e). Some major signs and symptoms of lung cancer includes worsen cough that wont go away, constant chest pain, blood-stained sputum, shortness of breath, fatigue, weight loss, etc (Canadian Cancer Society, 2014d). As the cancer spreads to other parts of body, the person might experience bone pain, broken bone, increased calcium level in blood or spinal cord compression (Canadian Cancer Society, 2014c).
The emotional/ psychosocial impart from cancer can affect the patient and also his/her family and friends. The patient might “fell shock, disbelief, fear anxiety, guilt, sadness, grief, depression, anger, and more” (American Cancer Society, 2012). When the doctor first tell the patient about the cancer, it is not uncommon that patient and family experiencing those feelings and often they might be feeling confused about the whole situation.
Canadian Cancer Society (2014g) mentioned that treatment options are depended on different stage of the cancer, whether the cancer can be removed by surgery and the person’s overall health and lung function. Once the cancer has metastases such as bone, its treatment options are depended on its primary cancer, which bone does the cancer has spread to, whether the bones are weak or fractured, any previous treatment and the person’s age and overall health (Canadian Cancer Society, 2014f).
PPS Assessment Score
I think Frank’s PPS assessment score is 40% due to weakness and tiredness which causing the need of assistance for most of his care, decreased conscious level, and unable to do most activity; intakes reduced due to his complains of increased difficulty swallowing, sore throat and appetite has decreased (Victoria Hospice Society, 2006).
Using the Family system struggles criteria from Spear (2014d) for assessing Frank’s family, they are experiencing some difficulties according to the criteria. According to Spear (2014d), the difficulties that they were experiencing were affected the family function. Denial and delusion, Frank and Mary are not planning to talk about their future plan because they both assuming that their partner are not strong enough to discuss about their future. In...