This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Luther An Intellectual Historians Persepective Essay

1450 words - 6 pages

Lortz an intellectual, Catholic Historian explains the reformation with reference to the medieval break up of Western Christianity. Lortz provides revealing evidence of a late medieval break down in the universality of the Catholic Church, which shook it to its very foundations. Firstly, Clement V removed the seat of the Roman See to Avignon in France from 1309 till 1377. Petrarch, the "father of humanism", termed this period the "Babylonian Captivity" of the papacy, a sentiment shared by many non-French. In 1377 Gregory XI's returned to Rome, by 1378 he was forced to evacuate back to Avignon where he re-established himself as pope. The result of this was the creation of two popes Urban VI in Rome and in Robert of Geneva in Avignon, the two popes excommunicated each other. European loyalty became divided, England and the German empire sided with Urban, France and the kings of Spain with Clement. In 1409 the Council of Pisa attempted to re-unify the church under one pope but ironically created a third pope. Secondly the establishment of the German national reform council with a "radically separatist" stance acted to distance Germany from Rome. Thirdly the church influence in the political, social, economic and legal field was damaged as a result of the growing desire amongst national rulers and in Germany territorial prices, to centralize power into their own hands and away from other interest groups, including the church. This is evident in the increased tendency towards national churches in England, France, Spain, and in Germany territorial churches. Lastly, Germany's refusal to raise taxation for or become directly involved in, a papal to war against the Turks, then the enemies of Christianity and resultant fall of Constantinople in 1453, to the Turks, is evidence of Europe's inability to unite against its enemies.Although humanism is often viewed as returning unity to the church, for Lortz, it actually was a process of secularization. The move away from a universal church represents an alteration in the people's attachment to Catholicism which for him led to the reformation. This argument exists as part of Lortz's general stance on the causes of the reformation, he blames the state of the catholic church at the begging of the sixteenth century for marking Luther and the reformation a possibility. Reform states Lortz "had been due for three hundred years".1Karl Adam similarly views the Catholic Church as responsible for causing the reformation. He emphasizes the excessive wealth of the clergy derived from taxation and other moneymaking practices including the abuse of the sale of indulgence and benefices, discussed in greater depth below, all of which acted to prepare the reformation. The church was indeed wealthy the Pope's yearly income was greater than that of any German emperor, many church's had large reserves of gold and silver in fact one third of all German land was owned by the papacy. Taxation represents around half of the Church's...

Find Another Essay On Luther an intellectual historians persepective

College Essay

864 words - 3 pages out and not as interested in the feel of it's campus. I believe that I would prefer the at home feeling of Luther rather than the busy city-like feeling of Iowa. I believe that if I lived on a calmer campus, where the scenery was enjoyable, I could achieve much better work for classes than if I were attending school on an unpleasing campus.Contact with a person's professor, I feel is important. At Luther there are fewer classmates so the

Marting Luther King and Grace Essay

1318 words - 5 pages noted above, it is experienced union or vision, not abstract knowledge. It is beyond Page 5 the level of concepts, for reasoning, ideas, and sensory images have been transcended (but not rejected) in an intuitive union. Thus it is super rational and super intellectual, not antirational or anti - intellectual. In one sense the soul is passive, because it experiences God's grace poured into it. Yet the union is not symbiotic, because the soul

Impact of Martin Luther

1107 words - 4 pages "Luther was a German patriot. He was never a nationalist in the modern sense of the word. Luther was, above all, a pastor, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. Luther has been variously identified as an advocate of absolute monarchy, democracy, individual freedom, intellectual repression, nationalism, internationalism, spirituality and secularism. He was a religious figure; his battles were fought over

The Doctor

1122 words - 5 pages order to gain the audiences trust. His use of syntax and hyperbole that could be seen through the quotes adds to the ethos by creating an authoritative person. The use of high modality and formal language aids the appeal of ethos as authoritative by demonstrating Martin Luther King as intellectual, in the essay, ‘Nonviolence and Racial Justice’. When comparing speeches from Martin Luther King and Malcom X, a difference that truly stands

Islamic Modernism

674 words - 3 pages )From its inception, modernity espoused a rationalist attitude, reflected in the isolation of its early thinkers. According to the almost universal view of intellectual historians, early modernists were troubled, lonely, and anxious human beings--whether it was Hegel, who first developed a clear concept of modernity, or Rousseau, the archetypal modem voice in the early phase of modernity, or Luther, its greatest anxiety-ridden religious personality

Ulysses S Grant

1563 words - 6 pages Booth had intended to assassinate Grant along with Lincoln. Much of what has been passed down as an objective appraisal of Grant's presidency more closely resembles the partisan critiques that were produced by a relatively small group of performers during the 1870's-- in many ways the intellectual ancestors of the present historical profession. Although such a minority can sometimes be a source of enlightenment, in this case, it has

Protestant DBQ What are the differences between the catholic and protestant churches during the first years of the break

653 words - 3 pages the Catholic faith by changing many traditions that gave church heads more power as a way to revert back to the focus of the faith.A hot topic at the time was the selling of indulgences. Many historians feel that this was the last straw for Luther and is what sparked him into placing the 95 Thesis on the doors of the church. The famous seller of these indulgences, which were said to give you a pass to heaven for the dead and living, was a man named

How have the various generations of professional historians depicted the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries' New England Puritans?

882 words - 4 pages . True, indulged in things that they should not have, but Morison states his belief that it is impossible to be perfect in your actions, but you should at least attempt to be perfect in your faith, an attempt that the Puritans obviously made.The works of Perry Miller also stands as a towering beacon ofAmerican intellectual history. Miller believed that Puritanism achieved an organized synthesis of concepts, which are fundamental to the American

Protestant reformation

1597 words - 7 pages movements the protestant ideals that followed is prevalent. Although each of these four movements do not agree in their entirety they are interconnected by their yearning to reform the practice of Christianity. In an attempt to express the relevance of the protestant movement to the ascension of the Christian faith, particularly the Protestant church, the explication of each movement is imperative. Lutheran Martin Luther is often noted as the most

Luther's effect on Christian Jewish Relations

1441 words - 6 pages In observing Jewish life before and during the middle ages, there appears to be a subtle and gradual shift in attitudes causing an improvement in Christian-Jewish relations. One might argue that Martin Luther and the Reformation had the most significant impact but there other factors to take into account. Before the onset of the Reformation, in the early medieval period, the Jews suffered immense religious intolerance, with accusations of ritual

Modern social Theory

1495 words - 6 pages in the family, peer groups, religious groups and sporting teams? Reference should be made to Symbolic Interactionism and Dramaturgy .Symbolic interactionism is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. This persepective has a long intellectual history, beginning with the German psychologist and economist Max Weber and American philosopher, George Herbert Mead, both of whom emphasized the subjective meaning of human behaviour, the

Similar Essays

Martin Luther And The Jews Essay

1277 words - 5 pages Martin Luther’s actions and intentions have puzzled historians for centuries. Some believe that Luther was in fact, a beneficial character towards the Jews; however, based on various historical proofs, Luther was not favourable towards the Jews in history. Contrary to some opinions of Luther’s kindness towards the Jews, his propaganda and extensive efforts to punish the people deem him to be a deceitful man. Although Luther appeared to be

The Importance Of The Printing Press To The Development Of The Reformation

708 words - 3 pages consequence' (The Printing Press as an agent of change, CambridgeUniversityPress) Printing ended the scribal corruption and copying errors which made it easier to define theological positions exactly and made it easier for Luther to attack the corruption of the Doctrine. With regard to the sola scriptura, an appeal to the Bible as the sole authority had been made before Luther by other reformers such as Wycliffe; but an

Here I Stand Essay

1541 words - 7 pages Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther by Roland H. Bainton is a biography of the life and times of theologian Martin Luther, an influential figure in European Christian history. Bainton is very articulate as he explains the 16th century settings, happenings, and people surrounding Luther. Beginning with the life of a young Luther, the book is a chronicle of the events that explicates Luther’s contributions to the Protestant Reformation. Rarely

Within The Context Of 1865 To 1968 How Significant Was The Part Played By Martin Luther King Jr In Achieving Equality For African Americans?

1303 words - 6 pages significant leaders in the civil rights era. Historians such as Peter Ling have changed the modern view that many have of Martin Luther King. The Great Man myth that was previously believed diminished as a new perspective was gained on the leaders tactics and doings. Although Martin Luther King was an influential civil rights leader in the south yet the north was a different problem to tackle. southern racism was segregation by Jim Crow laws and old