Magnet status is an award given by the American Nurses’ Credentialing Center (ANCC) an affiliate of the American Nurses Association (ANA) to hospitals that meet Magnet status criteria. Upon analysis of the history, concepts and theories which drive Magnet status, and reactions to Magnet status by various professionals, one will see that the Magnet Recognition Program awards an extremely positive accreditation that improves nursing, hospitals, and community image.
Magnet status started in 1983 when the American Academy of Nursing's (AAN) Task Force on Nursing Practice in Hospitals conducted a study of 163 hospitals to identify and describe variables that created an environment that attracted and retained well-qualified nurses who promoted quality patient/resident/client care. Forty-one (41) of the 163 institutions were described as "Magnet" hospitals because of their ability to attract and retain professional nurses. The characteristics that seem to distinguish "Magnet" organizations from others became known as the "Forces of Magnetism". In June of 1990 based on a recommendation of the American Nurses Association (ANA), the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) was established as a separately incorporated nonprofit organization through which ANA offers credentialing programs and services. In December the initial proposal for the Magnet Hospital Recognition Program for Excellence in Nursing Services was approved by the ANA Board of Directors. The proposal indicated that the program would build upon the 1983 Magnet hospital study conducted by the AAN. In 1994 after completing a pilot project that included five facilities, the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle became the first ANCC-designated Magnet organization. In 1997 the program name changed to the Magnet Nursing Services Recognition Program. In addition, program criteria were revised using The Scope and Standards for Nurse Administrators (ANA, 1996). In 1998 magnet Nursing Services Recognition Program was expanded to recognize nursing excellence in long term care facilities. In 2000 in response to requests, the Magnet Recognition Program was expanded to recognize healthcare organizations abroad. In 2002 the program name officially changed to Magnet Recognition Program® (History of Magnet, 2011).
In 2007 the ANCC commissioned a statistical analysis of Magnet appraisal team scores from evaluations conducted using the 2005 Magnet Recognition Program® Application Manual. This analysis clustered the SOE into more than 30 groups, which yielded an empirical model for the Magnet Recognition Program. Finally in 2008 the Commission on Magnet introduced a new vision, and a new conceptual model that grouped the 14 FOMs into five key components: Transformational Leadership; Structural Empowerment; Exemplary Professional Practice; New Knowledge, Innovations, & Improvements; and Empirical Outcomes (American Nurses Credentialing, 2011).
These five key components are broken down into...