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Major Steps In Plant Tissue Culture

1679 words - 7 pages

The increasing in the world’s population nowadays has lead to the increase in the demand for food. It is being a priority for the crops and food industries to find a solution to this matter in order to produce high amount of food and provide good quality food for the consumers. This is where the technology of plant tissue culture steps in. As Lineberger (n.d) mentions, plant tissue culture can contributes to the agriculture industry in the future and give advantageous to the growers because the mass production of plant and crops can be produced in a short period of time using the tissue collected from single parent plant. He also include that the plant can be maintained and monitored in the regulated environment like greenhouse so that the reduction in crops production cause by the seasonal change can be avoided. Plant tissue culture is referring to the “aseptic culture of cells, tissue, organs, and their components under defined physical and chemical conditions in vitro” (Thorpe, 2006, p.9). According to Odutayo, Amusa, Okutade and Ogunsanwo (2007), single pieces of plant from the stem tip, node, meristem, embryo and seed can be used for the multiplication of plant and induces in the sterile medium for its growth. As elaborated by Reed (n.d), there are three important steps involved in plant tissue culture namely preparation of explant, multiplication and transplanting (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The first step is preparation of explant. Explant is the process to transfer the piece of tissue taken from the mother plant and place them in a tissue culture medium (Reed, n.d.). Hussey (1986) reported that “tissues such as shoot or meristem-tips normally have an adequate covering of leaves or scales to protect them from general contamination and may usually be dissected out in aseptic condition” (p. 30). During this process, the tissues are cut into smaller pieces and prepared under sterilized condition especially explants that taken from the exposed organs like leaf and stem (Hussey, 1986). The selection of explants is a crucial step to prevent the contamination to the production of plant. Thus, size and source of the explants must take into consideration as well as the plant genotype (Smith, 2013). Smith has stated that smaller size explant is harder to culture compare to the larger explants where it contain enough nutrient and plant growth hormone to support its growth. He also added that plant material that is taken from the field is more contaminated compared to the plant material that taken from greenhouse. As mentioned by Beryl (2000), the media, explants, culture vessels and apparatus used should be maintained in sterilized condition to ensure an ideal medium for the culture to growth. The tissue is washed with the warm soapy water and rinse in tap water to remove surface contaminants. Tween 80 and Tween 20 can then be added to further sterilized the plant and then rinse three times with the sterilized distilled...

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