The 2011 London riots had many implications for society especially for young people; this essay seeks to analytically and critically discuss young offenders involved, using social exclusion and social justice as the main focus. This piece of work will briefly look at the historical context of social exclusion and social justice to create a platform, it will then move on to theoretical principles which offer an understanding of social exclusion and social justice. The implications of social exclusion and social justice for the young offenders involved in the 2011 London riots, such as an increased number of young people out of education, increase in youth unemployment and increase in the number of benefit recipients and the demand on the state. Legislation on social exclusion will be critically discussed; I will discuss the economic implications and the lack of community amenities and its impact on social upheavals will be discussed. This piece of work will conclude with a discussion of how social inclusion and social justice can be attained perhaps through provision of training courses and jobs for school leavers who cannot join further education due to lack of qualifications.
Teague and Wilson (1995:79) suggested that Social exclusion is an idea that has affected how social policy is implemented, without any significant backing. The term Social exclusion may be used to critically and analytically discuss disadvantaged individuals and groups within society combating poverty or inequalities (Stephenson, 2007). Others have argued that social exclusion is more than just about been poor or unemployed it encompasses a holistic view of individuals been left out from the norms of life. The ‘under class’ can be a term used to illustrate socially excluded individuals by members of society (Mandelson 1997:1).
Social justice does not have a specific definition it can be explained as an umbrella term of a society that is available to all, it can also be explained in terms of need, that every individual in society is entitled to basic rights which the government must allow for them to enjoy (Minogue, 1998). Social exclusion has made major influence on politics from the late 1990s (Stephenson 2007). Secrétaire d’Etat a l’Action sociale of the French government, René Lenoir is said to have used the term ‘social exclusion’ in publications over twenty five years ago. Since then has had a major impact on explanations of individuals who feel separated from society especially through poverty and deprivation (Sen, 2000). Silver (1995) also suggests that individuals who feel socially excluded may be lacking of basic needs of ‘livelihood’ and but not limited to, participating in democratic agendas.
The term Social Justice can be traced back to the twentieth century where the pursuit began by individuals, communities and societies, some argue that perhaps the fight for social justice maybe ending (Miller, 1999). Robert Merton’s work had major influence on the...