Part A: An Infectious Disease
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasitic protozoan pathogens. There are five pathogens spread by female mosquitos of the genus Anopheles. They are the Plasmodium falciparum, found in Africa, the Plasmodium vivax, found in Asia and South America, the Plasmodium ovale, found in West Africa, the Plasmodium malariae, found in Africa and the Plasmodium knowlesi, found in South East Asia.
Humans can become the host of any of these pathogens which cause malaria through several different ways, the most common being that someone is infected through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The parasite is injected in the mosquito’s saliva and ...view middle of the document...
There are fossils that show the malaria mosquito has existed for approximately 30 million years. The first recorded treatment dates back to 1600.
In 1820, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran discovered that quinine, purified from tree bark, a common treatment for fever, could be used to treat what was later identified as malaria.
In 1880, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran identified malaria and its cause. When his opinion that blood parasites caused malaria was first confirmed, it was received with scepticism, but was gradually accepted by all scientists.
In 1898, Sir Ronald Ross discovered that mosquitos transmit malaria. He commenced a study in 1892 that, after two and a half years of failure, succeeded in demonstration the life cycle of parasites in malarial mosquitos.
In 1934, A German scientist Alans Andersag discovered an anti-malarial drug, Resochin- later renamed chloroquine. At first, it was rejected for being too toxic, but later studies by the US and Australia showed it to be the most effective and least toxic drug against malaria.
In 1945, The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared that Chloroquine would become the standard recommendation for use in the suppression and treatment of malaria.
In 1945, Paul Muller discovered dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which was effective in killing the common housefly, the Colorado beetle, the louse and mosquitos.
In 1951, The United States became considered free from malaria.
In 1955, the WHO launched Malaria Eradication Campaign.
In 1957, there was the first documented case of resistance to chloroquine.
In 1976, vaccine research was begun by Dr JB Jensen and DR William Trager. The first malarial parasite is grown in culture in a laboratory.
In 1981, principles of antigen-based diagnostic tests for malaria were discovered.
In 1998, trained community volunteers provide anti-malarial drugs to be administered in African communities.
In 2001, the WHO prequalifies first fixed-dose Artemisia Combination Therapy (ACT), Coartem and recommends ACTs as first line malaria treatments.
In 2002, the global fund to fight AIDs, Tb and Malaria was established.
In 2004, Coartem was approved for use in infants and young children.
In 2008, there was the first World Malaria Day to raise awareness.
In 2008, rectal artesunate was proven to reduce mortality and illness among young children suffering from severe malaria.
Malaria is a disease that’s transmission is dependent upon...