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Malaria: Anopeles Mosquitoes Essay

1494 words - 6 pages

Malaria is an infectious disease transmitted by the female anopheles mosquitoes. It is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year among adults and children in regions of Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. The life cycle of malaria occurs in the human body and mosquito organisms. Malaria can be classified into different variations. They are different on severity and the kinds of symptoms each type of malaria presents. The diagnostic tests used to diagnose malaria have their own advantages and disadvantages. The difference in severity and symptoms among the types of malaria results in different treatments that designed for each type. Due to the fact that malaria affects large populations in different areas and causes many deaths annually, a lot of effort and resources have been put into the research for the creation of a vaccine that can treat the disease. By taking the necessary precautions, educating the population, employing current prevention techniques and actions, and early detection of infection, the decrease in malaria cases can be achieved, making the goal of having malaria under control and possibly eradicated a more feasible accomplishment for the future.
Five different Plasmodium (P.) protozoal parasites cause the malaria disease in human beings, and they are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. Each species of Plasmodium parasite affects the human host in a different way, their life cycles may be different, and their severity and symptoms may also differ. The life cycle begins with the female anopheles mosquito, the carrier of the parasites, biting a human being, which transfers sporozoites into the body. Shortly after the sporozoites enter the body, about sixty minutes, they are carried to the liver, where the sporozoites develop into schizonts and incubate for about ten days before the next phase. During the incubation in the liver, the small number of sporozoites increase to the thousands. After the incubation, the schizonts rupture and release the thousands of parasites, now called merozoites, into the bloodstream to invade the erythrocytes, or red blood cells, although a large number of them are destroyed by the immune system before they can invade. Once they invade the erythrocytes, the merozoites incubate again and turn into gametocytes, which can be asexual or sexual, develop into male and female gametocytes. It is during this incubation or erythrocytic phase and during the liver incubation when the clinical symptoms begin to appear. The gametocytes remain in the blood until a mosquito takes a blood meal and ingests them. This is when the cycle in the mosquito gut begins. Once they are in the mosquito gut, they develope into gametes. During the next phase the sexuality some gametocytes developed plays a big part of the process. The male gametes turn into microgametes by exflagellation, which is the same as a type of nuclear division. Now the male...

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